Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications

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Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications

Progress in Therapeutics


=> Progress in Therapeutics: Contributions of Many Cultures
=> Drug Control And Development
=> Modern Drug Legislation
=> Clinical Testing of Drugs
=> Phases of Clinical Investigation
=> Special Populations
=> Adverse Reaction Surveillance

Mechanisms of Drug Action


=> Receptors
=> Drug Receptors and Biological Responses
=> Second-Messenger Systems
=> The Chemistry of Drug-Receptor Binding
=> Dynamics of Drug–Receptor Binding
=> Dose–Response Relationship
=> Equations Derived From Drug–Receptor Interactions
=> Drug Antagonism

Drug Absorption and Distribution


=> Properties of Biological Membranes that Influence Drug Passage
=> Mechanisms of Solute Transport Across Membranes
=> Absorption of Drugs From the Alimentary Tract
=> Factors Affecting Rate of Gastrointestinal Absorption
=> Absorption of Drugs From the Lung
=> Absorption of Drugs Through the Skin
=> Absorption of Drugs After Parenteral Administration
=> Factors Influencing Drug Distribution
=> Human Available Distribution Volume
=> Binding of Drugs to Plasma Proteins
=> Selective Accumulation of Drugs
=> Physiological Barriers to Drug Distribution

Metabolism and Excretion of Drugs


=> Oxidative and Reductive Enzymes: Phase I Reactions
=> Conjugative Enzymes: Phase II Reactions
=> Tissue Specificity of Human Drug Metabolism Enzymes
=> Pharmacogenetics of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes
=> Excretion of Drugs
=> Renal Excretion
=> Pulmonary Excretion
=> Excretion in Other Body Fluids

Pharmacokinetics


=> Pharmacokinetics
=> Drug Concentration-Time Profiles and Basic Pharmacokinetic Parameters
=> Additional Pharmacokinetic Parameters
=> Pharmacokinetics of Single Versus Multiple Dosing
=> Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics

Drug Metabolism and Disposition in Pediatric and Gerontological Stages of Life


=> Drug Disposition in Pediatric Patients
=> Drug Disposition in Geriatric Patients

Principles of Toxicology


=> Principles of Toxicology
=> Manifestations of Toxicity
=> Treatment of Poisonings
=> Exposure to Nontherapeutic Toxicants
=> Applications of Toxicological Principles

Contemporary Bioethical Issues in Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Research


=> Biomedical Ethics in Pharmacology: An Introduction and Framework
=> Biomedical Ethics and Clinical Research
=> Conflicts of Interest and the Pharmaceutical Industry

General Organization and Functions of the Nervous System


=> General Organization and Functions of the Nervous System
=> Anatomic Differences Between the Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
=> Autonomic Nervous System
=> Autonomic Neurotransmitters
=> Innervation of Various Organs by the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
=> The Adrenal Medulla
=> Transmission of the Nerve Impulse
=> Steps in Neurochemical Transmission
=> Receptors on the Autonomic Effector Cells

Adrenomimetic Drugs


=> Adrenomimetic Drugs: Chemistry
=> Adrenomimetic Drugs: Mechanism of Action
=> Pharmacodynamic Actions of Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, and Isoproterenol
=> Pharmacological Actions of Dopamine
=> Clinical Uses of Catecholamines
=> Other Adrenomimetic Agents

Adrenoceptor Antagonists


=> Adrenoceptors
=> Classification of Blocking Drugs
=> alpha-Receptor Blocking Agents
=> beta-Adrenoceptor Blocking Agents
=> Drugs With Combined and Βeta-and Αlpha Blocking Activity

Directly and Indirectly Acting Cholinomimetics


=> Directly and Indirectly Acting Cholinomimetics
=> Direct-Acting Parasympathomimetic Drugs
=> Cholinesterase Inhibitors
=> Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Clinical Uses

Muscarinic Blocking Drugs


=> Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Chemistry
=> Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Mechanism of Action
=> Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Pharmacological Actions
=> Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion
=> Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Clinical Uses
=> Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Antimuscarinic Poisoning
=> Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Contraindications and Cautions

Ganglionic Blocking Drugs and Nicotine


=> Ganglionic Transmission
=> Ganglionic Stimulants
=> Ganglionic Blocking Drugs
=> Individual Agents

Pharmacological Management of Chronic Heart Failure


=> Chronic (Congestive) Heart Failure
=> Myocardial Excitation–Contraction Coupling
=> Cardiac Glycosides
=> Diuretics
=> Hydralazine and Nitrates
=> Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
=> Beta-Adrenoceptor Blocking Drugs
=> cAMP-Elevating Agents
=> Antiarrhythmic Drugs
=> Cardiac Electrophysiology: Transmembrane Potential
=> Cardiac Electrophysiology: Ionic Basis for the Membrane Action Potential
=> Cardiac Electrophysiology: Automaticity
=> Cardiac Electrophysiology: Cardiac Conduction
=> Cardiac Electrophysiology: Refractory Period
=> Cardiac Electrophysiology: Mechanisms of Arrhythmias
=> Cardiac Electrophysiology: Enhanced Automaticity
=> Cardiac Electrophysiology: Triggered Activity
=> Cardiac Electrophysiology: Reentry
=> Classification of Antiarrhythmic Drugs
=> Quinidine
=> Procainamide
=> Disopyramide
=> Moricizine
=> Lidocaine
=> Phenytoin
=> Tocainide
=> Mexiletine
=> Flecainide
=> Propafenone
=> Propranolol
=> Acebutolol
=> Esmolol
=> Bretylium
=> Amiodarone
=> Sotalol
=> Dofetilide
=> Ibutilide Fumarate
=> Verapamil
=> Digitalis Glycosides and Vagomimetic Drugs
=> Adenosine
=> Magnesium Sulfate
=> Drug–Device Interactions

Antianginal Drugs


=> Antianginal Drugs
=> The Therapeutic Objectives in the Use of Antianginal Drugs
=> Organic Nitrates Antianginal Drugs
=> β-Adrenoceptor Blocking Agents
=> Calcium Entry or Calcium Channel Blockers

The ReninAngiotensin Aldosterone System and Other Vasoactive Substances


=> The Renin–Angiotensin System
=> Angiotensin Receptors
=> Pharmacological Actions
=> Antagonists of the Renin–Angiotensin System
=> Aldosterone
=> Bradykinin
=> Endothelin
=> Natriuretic Peptides
=> Nitric Oxide

Calcium Channel Blockers


=> Calcium Channel Blockers
=> Calcium Antagonism
=> Pharmacological Effects on the Cardiovascular System
=> Therapeutic Applications
=> Calcium Channel Blockers: Pharmacokinetics
=> Calcium Channel Blockers: Toxicity

Antihypertensive Drugs


=> Antihypertensive Drugs
=> Diuretics
=> Vasodilators
=> Vasodilators: Mechanism of Action
=> Vasodilators: Hydralazine
=> Vasodilators: Minoxidil
=> Vasodilators: Diazoxide
=> Vasodilators: Sodium Nitroprusside
=> Drugs That Impair Sympathetic Nervous System Functioning
=> Adrenoceptor Antagonists
=> Adrenergic Neuron Βeta-Blocking Drugs
=> Drugs that Interfere with Norepinephrine Storage
=> Drugs that Interfere with Norepinephrine Synthesis
=> Ganglionic Blocking Agents
=> Centrally Acting Hypotensive Drugs

Diuretic Drugs


=> Diuretic Drugs
=> Body Water and Electrolyte Metabolism
=> Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
=> Thiazide Diuretics
=> Hypokalemia and Potassium-sparing Diuretics
=> High-Ceiling, or Loop, Diuretics
=> Osmotic Diuretics
=> Uses of Diuretics

Anticoagulant Antiplatelet and Fibrinolytic Thrombolytic Drugs


=> Hemostatic Mechanisms
=> Coagulation Systems
=> Anticoagulant Drugs
=> Clinical Indications for Anticoagulant Therapy
=> Antiplatelet Drugs
=> Fibrinolytic System

Hypocholesterolemic Drugs and Coronary Heart Disease


=> Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease as the Goal
=> When to Treat Hypercholesterolemias?
=> Management of Hyperlipidemias With Drugs
=> Management of Hyperlipidemias With Drugs: Other Hypocholesterolemic Drugs
=> When to Treat Hypertriglyceridemias

Introduction to Central Nervous System Pharmacology


=> Review of Basic Neuroscience
=> Central Nervous System Neurotransmitters
=> Blood-Brain Barrier

General Anesthesia Intravenous and Inhalational Agents


=> Pharmacokinetic Characteristics Influencing the Clinical
=> Intravenous Anesthetic Agents
=> Benzodiazepines
=> Etomidate
=> Propofol
=> Ketamine
=> Intravenous Anesthetic Techniques Managed with Opioids
=> α2-Adrenoceptor Agonists
=> Inhalational Anesthetics
=> Pharmacokinetic Characteristics
=> Development of the Partial Pressure of a Gas in Solution
=> A Concept of Anesthetic Dose Based on Partial Pressure–Minimum Alveolar Concentration
=> Factors Affecting the Rate of Development of Anesthetic Concentration in the Lung
=> Halogenated Hydrocarbon Anesthetics
=> Nonhalogenated Inhalational Anesthetics
=> Mechanism of Anesthetic Action

Opioid and Nonopioid Analgesics


=> The Nature of Pain
=> Nonopioid Analgesics
=> Salicylates
=> p-Aminophenol Derivatives
=> Indoles (indomethacin) and Related Compounds
=> Fenamates
=> Arylpropionic Acid Derivatives
=> Pyrazolone Derivatives
=> Oxicam Derivatives
=> Acetic Acid Derivatives
=> COX-2 Inhibitors
=> Opioid Analgesics
=> Opioid Analgesics: Pharmacological Effects
=> Opioid Analgesics: Morphine
=> Opioid Analgesics: Codeine and Other Phenanthrene Derivatives
=> Opioid Analgesics: Meperidine and Related Phenylpiperidine Derivatives
=> Opioid Analgesics: Fentanyl, Sufentanil, and Alfentanil
=> Opioid Analgesics: Levorphanol
=> Opioid Analgesics: Methadone
=> Opioid Analgesics: Propoxyphene
=> Opioid Analgesics: Opium-Containing Preparations
=> Opioid Analgesics: Heroin
=> Mixed Opioid Agonist–Antagonists or Partial Agonists
=> Opioid Analgesics: Opioid Antagonists
=> Opioid Analgesics: Drugs Used Predominantly as Antitussives

Local Anesthetics


=> Properties of Local Anesthetics
=> Esters
=> Amides
=> Topical Agents
=> Agents Affecting Neuromuscular Transmission
=> Enhancement of Acetylcholine Release
=> Depression of Acetylcholine Release
=> Depression of Postjunctional Response to Acetylcholine
=> Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
=> Pharmacology of Antispasticity Agents

Central Nervous System Stimulants


=> Central Nervous System Stimulants
=> Analeptic Stimulants
=> Psychomotor Stimulants
=> Xanthines

Sedative hypnotic and Anxiolytic Drugs


=> Sedative–hypnotic and Anxiolytic Drugs
=> Azapirones
=> Benzodiazepines
=> Other Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists
=> Sedatives and Anxiolytics With Other Major Uses
=> Older Sedative–Hypnotic and Anxiolytic Agents
=> Nonprescription Drugs

Drugs Used in Neurodegenerative Disorders


=> Parkinson’s Disease
=> Therapy of Parkinsonism
=> Alzheimer’s Disease

Antiepileptic Drugs


=> Antiepileptic Drugs
=> Clinically Useful Drugs
=> Sodium Channel Blocking Agents
=> Drugs That Primarily Enhance the Action of GABA
=> Agents That Block T-Calcium Channels
=> Agents Whose Mechanism of Action Is Not Known
=> Anticonvulsant Drugs and Pregnancy
=> Treatment of Febrile Seizures
=> Treatment of Status Epilepticus

Drugs Used in Mood Disorders


=> Treatment of Major Depression
=> Treatment of Major Depression: The Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
=> Treatment of Major Depression: Miscellaneous Antidepressants
=> Treatment of Major Depression: Tricyclic Antidepressants
=> Treatment of Major Depression: Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
=> Treatment of Manic-Depressive Illness

Antipsychotic Drugs


=> The Disease of Schizophrenia
=> Antipsychotic Mechanisms of Action
=> Antipsychotic Drugs: Pharmacology
=> Antipsychotic Drugs: Clinical Uses
=> Antipsychotic Drugs: Adverse Effects
=> Antipsychotic Drugs: Drug Interactions

Contemporary Drug Abuse


=> Contemporary Drug Abuse
=> Opioids
=> Stimulants
=> Nicotine
=> Sedative–Hypnotics
=> Contemporary Drug Abuse: Ethanol
=> Contemporary Drug Abuse: Marijuana
=> Contemporary Drug Abuse: Hallucinogens
=> Contemporary Drug Abuse: Inhalants
=> Contemporary Drug Abuse: Designer Drugs
=> Contemporary Drug Abuse: Anabolic Steroids

Antiinflammatory and Antirheumatic Drugs


=> Antiinflammatory and Antirheumatic Drugs
=> The Inflammatory Process
=> Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
=> Specific Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
=> Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs
=> Methotrexate
=> Sulfasalazine
=> Antimalarials
=> Leflunomide
=> TNF-α : Inhibitors
=> Interleukin-1 Antagonists
=> Gold Compounds Drugs
=> Other Drugs for Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy
=> New Approaches to the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Drugs Used in Gout


=> Drugs Used in Gout
=> Chemistry of Uric Acid
=> Renal Urate Homeostasis
=> Relationship of Uric Acid Levels to Gout
=> Role of Phagocytosis in Acute Gouty Arthritis
=> Principles of Gout Management
=> Colchicine
=> Uricosuric Agents

Histamine and Histamine Antagonists


=> Histamine
=> Histamine Antagonism and Histamine Antagonists

Drugs Used in Asthma


=> Drugs Used in Asthma
=> Drugs Used in Asthma: Treatment Strategy
=> Bronchodilators
=> Adrenomimetic Agents
=> Theophylline
=> Anticholinergics
=> Antiinflammatory Agents
=> Alternative Therapies
=> Status Asthmaticus

Drugs Used in Gastrointestinal Disorders


=> Introduction to Normal Physiology
=> Drugs That Increase GI Motility
=> Drugs That Decrease GI Motility
=> Pharmacological Modulation of Diarrhea
=> Pharmacological Modulation of Vomiting
=> Drugs that Decrease or Neutralize Gastric Acid Secretion
=> Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
=> Miscellaneous GI Drugs

Drugs Used in Dermatological Disorders


=> Skin Structure
=> Percutaneous Absorption
=> Practical Considerations in Topical Drug Therapy
=> Topical Glucocorticosteroids
=> Retinoids
=> Photochemotherapy
=> Photodynamic Therapy
=> Aminolevulinic Acid
=> Dapsone
=> Thalidomide
=> Antimalarial Drugs
=> Antimicrobial Agents
=> Drugs For Cutaneous Fungal Infections
=> Drugs For Cutaneous Viral Infections
=> Drugs Used To Treat Scabies and Lice
=> Cytotoxic and Immunosuppressive Agents
=> Topical Immune-Modulating Agents
=> Antihistamines
=> Doxepin
=> Drugs Used to Treat Disorders of Pigmentation
=> Recombinant Proteins and Other Biologicals
=> Miscellaneous Topical Agents
=> Keratolytics
=> Sunscreens

Drugs for the Control of Supragingival Plaque


=> The Role of Supragingival Dental Plaque in the Initiation of Gingivitis
=> Pharmacokinetics of the Oral Cavity
=> Antiplaque Agents

Introduction to Chemotherapy


=> Introduction to Chemotherapy
=> The Patient–Drug–Pathogen Interaction
=> Managing Chemotherapy

Synthetic Organic Antimicrobials Sulfonamides Trimethoprim Nitrofurans Quinolones Methenamine


=> Sulfonamides
=> Trimethoprim
=> Quinolones: Nalidixic Acid and Fluoroquinolones
=> Urinary Antiseptics

Lactam Antibiotics


=> β-Lactam Antibiotics
=> β-Lactam Antibiotics: Mechanism of Action
=> β-Lactam Antibiotics: Mechanisms of Resistance
=> Penicillins
=> Cephalosporins
=> Carbapenems and Carbacephems
=> Monobactams

Aminoglycoside Antibiotics


=> Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Chemistry
=> Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Mechanism of Antibacterial Action
=> Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Mechanism of Antibacterial Resistance
=> Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Pharmacokinetics
=> Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Clinical Uses
=> Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Single Daily Dosing
=> Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Toxicity

Tetracyclines Chloramphenicol Macrolides and Lincosamides


=> Tetracyclines
=> Chloramphenicol
=> Macrolide Antibiotics
=> Lincosamides

Bacitracin Glycopeptide Antibiotics and the Polymyxins


=> Bacitracin
=> Glycopeptides: Vancomycin and Teicoplanin
=> The Polymyxins

Drugs Used in Tuberculosis and Leprosy


=> Key Concepts in the Treatment of Tuberculosis
=> First-Line Antituberculosis Drugs
=> Second-Line Antituberculous Drugs
=> Recommendation for the Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection
=> Recommendations for Treatment of Active Tuberculosis
=> Treatment of Leprosy

Antiviral Drugs


=> Viral Infection and Disease
=> Antiherpesvirus Agents
=> Antiherpesvirus Agents: Acyclovir and Valacyclovir
=> Antiherpesvirus Agents: Cidofovir
=> Antiherpesvirus Agents: Docosanol
=> Antiherpesvirus Agents: Famciclovir and Penciclovir
=> Fomivirsen
=> Antiherpesvirus Agents: Foscarnet
=> Antiherpesvirus Agents: Ganciclovir and Valganciclovir
=> Antiherpesvirus Agents: Idoxuridine
=> Antiherpesvirus Agents: Trifluridine
=> Antiherpesvirus Agents: Vidarabine
=> Antiinfluenza Agents
=> Antiinfluenza Agents: Amantadine and Rimantadine
=> Antiinfluenza Agents: Oseltamivir
=> Antiinfluenza Agents: Zanamivir
=> Antiviral Agents: Immune Globulin
=> Antiviral Agents: Interferons
=> Antiviral Agents: Ribavirin
=> Antiviral Agents: Lamivudine
=> Antiviral Agents: Palivizumab

Therapy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus


=> Human Immunodeficiency Virus
=> Drug Therapy of HIV Infection
=> Drug Therapy of HIV Infection: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
=> Drug Therapy of HIV Infection: Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
=> Drug Therapy of HIV Infection: Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
=> Drug Therapy of HIV Infection: Protease Inhibitors
=> The Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnancy

Antifungal Drugs


=> Antifungal Drugs
=> Amphotericin B
=> Nystatin Antifungal Drug
=> The Azoles Antifungal Drug
=> Fluconazole Antifungal Drug
=> Itraconazole Antifungal Drug
=> Ketoconazole Antifungal Drug
=> Miconazole Antifungal Drug
=> Clotrimazole Antifungal Drug
=> Voriconazole Antifungal Drug
=> Flucytosine Antifungal Drug
=> Capsofungin Antifungal Drug
=> Allylamines Antifungal Drug
=> Griseofulvin Antifungal Drug
=> Miscellaneous Topical Antifungal Agents

Antiprotozoal Drugs


=> Protozoal Diseases
=> Antiprotozoal Drug: Metronidazole
=> Antiprotozoal Drug: Iodoquinol
=> Antiprotozoal Drug: Diloxanide Furoate
=> Antiprotozoal Drug: Antibiotics
=> Antiprotozoal Drug: Pentamidine
=> Antiprotozoal Drug: Suramin
=> Antiprotozoal Drug: Eflornithine
=> Antiprotozoal Drug: Arsenicals
=> Antiprotozoal Drug: Nifurtimox
=> Antiprotozoal Drug: Antimonials
=> Malaria
=> Antimalarial Drugs
=> Antimalarial Drugs In Development
=> Selection of Antimalarial Drugs

Anthelmintic Drugs


=> Anthelmintic Drugs
=> Treatment for Infections Caused by Nematodes
=> Benzimidazoles
=> Treatment for Infections Caused by Cestodes
=> Treatment for Infections Caused by Trematodes

The Rational Basis for Cancer Chemotherapy


=> Concepts in Tumor Cell Biology
=> Drugs and the Cell Cycle
=> Tumor Growth and Growth Fraction
=> The Log Cell Kill Hypothesis
=> Cancer Chemotherapy: Drug Resistance
=> Cancer Therapy and the Immune System
=> General Toxicological Properties of Anticancer Drugs
=> Pharmacokinetic Considerations in Cancer Chemotherapy
=> Combination Chemotherapy

Antineoplastic Agents


=> Alkylating Agents
=> Alkylating Agents: Nitrogen Mustards
=> Alkylating Agents: Nitrosoureas
=> Alkylating Agents: Alkyl Sulfonates
=> Alkylating Agents: Ethylenimines
=> Alkylating Agents: Triazenes
=> Antimetabolites: Folate Antagonists
=> Antimetabolites: Purine Analogues
=> Antimetabolites: Pyrimidine Analogues
=> Antineoplastic Agents: Antibiotics
=> Antineoplastic Agents: Plant-Derived Products
=> Antineoplastic Agents: Enzymes
=> Antineoplastic Agents: Hormone Derivatives
=> Antineoplastic Agents: Miscellaneous Agents
=> Immunomodulating Agents
=> Cellular Growth Factors
=> New Drug Therapies for Cancer

Immunomodulating Drugs


=> Autoimmune Diseases
=> Organ Transplantation
=> Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases
=> General Principles of Immunosuppressive Therapy
=> Individual Drugs Used to Suppress the Immune System
=> Individual Drugs Used to Stimulate the Immune System

Gene Therapy


=> Gene Therapy
=> Gene Therapy: Definition and Goals
=> Antisense
=> Gene Excision and Replacement
=> Gene Addition
=> Gene Therapy: Delivery Systems
=> Disease Application and Future Directions

Hypothalamic and Pituitary Gland Hormones


=> Anterior Pituitary Hormones
=> Hypothalamic Regulatory Hormones
=> Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Gland

Adrenocortical Hormones and Drugs Affecting the Adrenal Cortex


=> Steroid Physiology
=> Actions of the Corticosteroids
=> General Pharmacology of Corticosteroids
=> Adverse Effects
=> Therapeutic Uses of Steroid Hormones
=> Proposed Mechanism of Steroid Action
=> Drugs Used in the Diagnosis or Treatment of Adrenocortical Abnormalities

Estrogens Progestins and Specific Estrogen Receptor Modulators SERMs


=> Natural Estrogens and Progestins
=> Natural Estrogens and Progestins: Mechanisms of Action
=> Actions of Estrogens and Progestins in Females
=> Synthetic Agents Acting Via Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors
=> Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)
=> Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs): Clinical Uses
=> Cancer
=> Other clinical uses of estrogens and progestins
=> Estrogens, Progestins: Adverse Effects
=> Contraindications and Drug Interactions

Uterine Stimulants and Relaxants


=> Uterine Stimulants and Relaxants
=> Uterine Stimulants
=> Uterine Relaxants

Androgens Antiandrogens and Anabolic Steroids


=> Characterization of Plasma Androgens
=> Sex Hormone–Binding Proteins
=> Steroidogenesis
=> Regulation of Plasma Testosterone
=> Androgen: Mechanism of Action
=> Androgens: Pharmacological Actions
=> Androgens: Clinical Uses
=> Androgens: Adverse Effects
=> Androgens: Antiandrogens

Drugs Used in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction


=> Drugs Used in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction
=> Physiology of Penile Erection
=> Individual Agents

Thyroid and Antithyroid Drugs


=> Thyroid and Antithyroid Drugs
=> Biosynthesis, Storage, Secretion, and Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones
=> Mechanisms of Action of Thyroid Hormones
=> Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones
=> Hypothyroid States
=> Drugs Used in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism
=> Adverse Effects of Treatment With Thyroid Hormone
=> Thyroid and Antithyroid Drugs: Drug Interactions
=> Thyrotoxicosis
=> Drugs Used in the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

Parathyroid Hormone Calcitonin Vitamin D


=> Calcium Homeostasis
=> Parathyroid Hormone
=> Calcitonin
=> Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)
=> Bisphosphonates
=> Clinical Uses of Parathyroid Hormone
=> Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, Vitamin D: Adverse Effects

Insulin and Oral Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus


=> Glucose Homeostasis
=> Insulin
=> Diabetes Mellitus
=> Metabolic Disturbances and Complications of the Diabetic State
=> Clinical Management of Diabetes
=> Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus
=> Sulfonylureas - Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus
=> Meglitinides - Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus
=> Biguanides - Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus
=> Thiazolidinediones - Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus
=> α-Glucosidase Inhibitors - Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus

Vitamins


=> Dietary Reference Standards
=> Vitamins Deficiency Diseases
=> Vitamin Toxicity
=> Physiological Function and Dietary Sources - Vitamins
=> Vitamins: Therapeutic Uses
=> Vitamin–Drug Interactions
=> Anemia

Herbal Medicine


=> Herbal Medicine
=> Herbal Medicine Traditions
=> Herbal Medicine: Potential Concerns
=> Herbal Medicine: Regulatory Issues
=> Herbal Preparations: Echinacea
=> Herbal Preparations: Feverfew
=> Herbal Preparations: Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract
=> Herbal Preparations: Ginseng
=> Herbal Preparations: Kava
=> Herbal Preparations: Milk Thistle
=> Herbal Preparations: Saw Palmetto
=> Herbal Preparations: St. John’s Wort
=> Herbal Preparations: Soy and Other Phytoestrogens



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