Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications

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Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications

Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications

Progress in Therapeutics

Progress in Therapeutics: Contributions of Many Cultures
Drug Control And Development
Modern Drug Legislation
Clinical Testing of Drugs
Phases of Clinical Investigation
Special Populations
Adverse Reaction Surveillance

Mechanisms of Drug Action

Drug Receptors and Biological Responses
Second-Messenger Systems
The Chemistry of Drug-Receptor Binding
Dynamics of Drug–Receptor Binding
Dose–Response Relationship
Equations Derived From Drug–Receptor Interactions
Drug Antagonism

Drug Absorption and Distribution

Properties of Biological Membranes that Influence Drug Passage
Mechanisms of Solute Transport Across Membranes
Absorption of Drugs From the Alimentary Tract
Factors Affecting Rate of Gastrointestinal Absorption
Absorption of Drugs From the Lung
Absorption of Drugs Through the Skin
Absorption of Drugs After Parenteral Administration
Factors Influencing Drug Distribution
Human Available Distribution Volume
Binding of Drugs to Plasma Proteins
Selective Accumulation of Drugs
Physiological Barriers to Drug Distribution

Metabolism and Excretion of Drugs

Oxidative and Reductive Enzymes: Phase I Reactions
Conjugative Enzymes: Phase II Reactions
Tissue Specificity of Human Drug Metabolism Enzymes
Pharmacogenetics of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes
Excretion of Drugs
Renal Excretion
Pulmonary Excretion
Excretion in Other Body Fluids


Drug Concentration-Time Profiles and Basic Pharmacokinetic Parameters
Additional Pharmacokinetic Parameters
Pharmacokinetics of Single Versus Multiple Dosing
Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics

Drug Metabolism and Disposition in Pediatric and Gerontological Stages of Life

Drug Disposition in Pediatric Patients
Drug Disposition in Geriatric Patients

Principles of Toxicology

Principles of Toxicology
Manifestations of Toxicity
Treatment of Poisonings
Exposure to Nontherapeutic Toxicants
Applications of Toxicological Principles

Contemporary Bioethical Issues in Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Research

Biomedical Ethics in Pharmacology: An Introduction and Framework
Biomedical Ethics and Clinical Research
Conflicts of Interest and the Pharmaceutical Industry

General Organization and Functions of the Nervous System

General Organization and Functions of the Nervous System
Anatomic Differences Between the Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Neurotransmitters
Innervation of Various Organs by the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems
The Adrenal Medulla
Transmission of the Nerve Impulse
Steps in Neurochemical Transmission
Receptors on the Autonomic Effector Cells

Adrenomimetic Drugs

Adrenomimetic Drugs: Chemistry
Adrenomimetic Drugs: Mechanism of Action
Pharmacodynamic Actions of Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, and Isoproterenol
Pharmacological Actions of Dopamine
Clinical Uses of Catecholamines
Other Adrenomimetic Agents

Adrenoceptor Antagonists

Classification of Blocking Drugs
alpha-Receptor Blocking Agents
beta-Adrenoceptor Blocking Agents
Drugs With Combined and ?eta-and ?lpha Blocking Activity

Directly and Indirectly Acting Cholinomimetics

Directly and Indirectly Acting Cholinomimetics
Direct-Acting Parasympathomimetic Drugs
Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Clinical Uses

Muscarinic Blocking Drugs

Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Chemistry
Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Mechanism of Action
Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Pharmacological Actions
Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion
Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Clinical Uses
Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Antimuscarinic Poisoning
Muscarinic Blocking Drugs: Contraindications and Cautions

Ganglionic Blocking Drugs and Nicotine

Ganglionic Transmission
Ganglionic Stimulants
Ganglionic Blocking Drugs
Individual Agents

Pharmacological Management of Chronic Heart Failure

Chronic (Congestive) Heart Failure
Myocardial Excitation–Contraction Coupling
Cardiac Glycosides
Hydralazine and Nitrates
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Beta-Adrenoceptor Blocking Drugs
cAMP-Elevating Agents
Antiarrhythmic Drugs
Cardiac Electrophysiology: Transmembrane Potential
Cardiac Electrophysiology: Ionic Basis for the Membrane Action Potential
Cardiac Electrophysiology: Automaticity
Cardiac Electrophysiology: Cardiac Conduction
Cardiac Electrophysiology: Refractory Period
Cardiac Electrophysiology: Mechanisms of Arrhythmias
Cardiac Electrophysiology: Enhanced Automaticity
Cardiac Electrophysiology: Triggered Activity
Cardiac Electrophysiology: Reentry
Classification of Antiarrhythmic Drugs
Ibutilide Fumarate
Digitalis Glycosides and Vagomimetic Drugs
Magnesium Sulfate
Drug–Device Interactions

Antianginal Drugs

Antianginal Drugs
The Therapeutic Objectives in the Use of Antianginal Drugs
Organic Nitrates Antianginal Drugs
?-Adrenoceptor Blocking Agents
Calcium Entry or Calcium Channel Blockers

The ReninAngiotensin Aldosterone System and Other Vasoactive Substances

The Renin–Angiotensin System
Angiotensin Receptors
Pharmacological Actions
Antagonists of the Renin–Angiotensin System
Natriuretic Peptides
Nitric Oxide

Calcium Channel Blockers

Calcium Channel Blockers
Calcium Antagonism
Pharmacological Effects on the Cardiovascular System
Therapeutic Applications
Calcium Channel Blockers: Pharmacokinetics
Calcium Channel Blockers: Toxicity

Antihypertensive Drugs

Antihypertensive Drugs
Vasodilators: Mechanism of Action
Vasodilators: Hydralazine
Vasodilators: Minoxidil
Vasodilators: Diazoxide
Vasodilators: Sodium Nitroprusside
Drugs That Impair Sympathetic Nervous System Functioning
Adrenoceptor Antagonists
Adrenergic Neuron ?eta-Blocking Drugs
Drugs that Interfere with Norepinephrine Storage
Drugs that Interfere with Norepinephrine Synthesis
Ganglionic Blocking Agents
Centrally Acting Hypotensive Drugs

Diuretic Drugs

Diuretic Drugs
Body Water and Electrolyte Metabolism
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Thiazide Diuretics
Hypokalemia and Potassium-sparing Diuretics
High-Ceiling, or Loop, Diuretics
Osmotic Diuretics
Uses of Diuretics

Anticoagulant Antiplatelet and Fibrinolytic Thrombolytic Drugs

Hemostatic Mechanisms
Coagulation Systems
Anticoagulant Drugs
Clinical Indications for Anticoagulant Therapy
Antiplatelet Drugs
Fibrinolytic System

Hypocholesterolemic Drugs and Coronary Heart Disease

Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease as the Goal
When to Treat Hypercholesterolemias?
Management of Hyperlipidemias With Drugs
Management of Hyperlipidemias With Drugs: Other Hypocholesterolemic Drugs
When to Treat Hypertriglyceridemias

Introduction to Central Nervous System Pharmacology

Review of Basic Neuroscience
Central Nervous System Neurotransmitters
Blood-Brain Barrier

General Anesthesia Intravenous and Inhalational Agents

Pharmacokinetic Characteristics Influencing the Clinical
Intravenous Anesthetic Agents
Intravenous Anesthetic Techniques Managed with Opioids
?2-Adrenoceptor Agonists
Inhalational Anesthetics
Pharmacokinetic Characteristics
Development of the Partial Pressure of a Gas in Solution
A Concept of Anesthetic Dose Based on Partial Pressure–Minimum Alveolar Concentration
Factors Affecting the Rate of Development of Anesthetic Concentration in the Lung
Halogenated Hydrocarbon Anesthetics
Nonhalogenated Inhalational Anesthetics
Mechanism of Anesthetic Action

Opioid and Nonopioid Analgesics

The Nature of Pain
Nonopioid Analgesics
p-Aminophenol Derivatives
Indoles (indomethacin) and Related Compounds
Arylpropionic Acid Derivatives
Pyrazolone Derivatives
Oxicam Derivatives
Acetic Acid Derivatives
COX-2 Inhibitors
Opioid Analgesics
Opioid Analgesics: Pharmacological Effects
Opioid Analgesics: Morphine
Opioid Analgesics: Codeine and Other Phenanthrene Derivatives
Opioid Analgesics: Meperidine and Related Phenylpiperidine Derivatives
Opioid Analgesics: Fentanyl, Sufentanil, and Alfentanil
Opioid Analgesics: Levorphanol
Opioid Analgesics: Methadone
Opioid Analgesics: Propoxyphene
Opioid Analgesics: Opium-Containing Preparations
Opioid Analgesics: Heroin
Mixed Opioid Agonist–Antagonists or Partial Agonists
Opioid Analgesics: Opioid Antagonists
Opioid Analgesics: Drugs Used Predominantly as Antitussives

Local Anesthetics

Properties of Local Anesthetics
Topical Agents
Agents Affecting Neuromuscular Transmission
Enhancement of Acetylcholine Release
Depression of Acetylcholine Release
Depression of Postjunctional Response to Acetylcholine
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
Pharmacology of Antispasticity Agents

Central Nervous System Stimulants

Central Nervous System Stimulants
Analeptic Stimulants
Psychomotor Stimulants

Sedative hypnotic and Anxiolytic Drugs

Sedative–hypnotic and Anxiolytic Drugs
Other Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists
Sedatives and Anxiolytics With Other Major Uses
Older Sedative–Hypnotic and Anxiolytic Agents
Nonprescription Drugs

Drugs Used in Neurodegenerative Disorders

Parkinson’s Disease
Therapy of Parkinsonism
Alzheimer’s Disease

Antiepileptic Drugs

Antiepileptic Drugs
Clinically Useful Drugs
Sodium Channel Blocking Agents
Drugs That Primarily Enhance the Action of GABA
Agents That Block T-Calcium Channels
Agents Whose Mechanism of Action Is Not Known
Anticonvulsant Drugs and Pregnancy
Treatment of Febrile Seizures
Treatment of Status Epilepticus

Drugs Used in Mood Disorders

Treatment of Major Depression
Treatment of Major Depression: The Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Treatment of Major Depression: Miscellaneous Antidepressants
Treatment of Major Depression: Tricyclic Antidepressants
Treatment of Major Depression: Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
Treatment of Manic-Depressive Illness

Antipsychotic Drugs

The Disease of Schizophrenia
Antipsychotic Mechanisms of Action
Antipsychotic Drugs: Pharmacology
Antipsychotic Drugs: Clinical Uses
Antipsychotic Drugs: Adverse Effects
Antipsychotic Drugs: Drug Interactions

Contemporary Drug Abuse

Contemporary Drug Abuse
Contemporary Drug Abuse: Ethanol
Contemporary Drug Abuse: Marijuana
Contemporary Drug Abuse: Hallucinogens
Contemporary Drug Abuse: Inhalants
Contemporary Drug Abuse: Designer Drugs
Contemporary Drug Abuse: Anabolic Steroids

Antiinflammatory and Antirheumatic Drugs

Antiinflammatory and Antirheumatic Drugs
The Inflammatory Process
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
Specific Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs
TNF-? : Inhibitors
Interleukin-1 Antagonists
Gold Compounds Drugs
Other Drugs for Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy
New Approaches to the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Drugs Used in Gout

Drugs Used in Gout
Chemistry of Uric Acid
Renal Urate Homeostasis
Relationship of Uric Acid Levels to Gout
Role of Phagocytosis in Acute Gouty Arthritis
Principles of Gout Management
Uricosuric Agents

Histamine and Histamine Antagonists

Histamine Antagonism and Histamine Antagonists

Drugs Used in Asthma

Drugs Used in Asthma
Drugs Used in Asthma: Treatment Strategy
Adrenomimetic Agents
Antiinflammatory Agents
Alternative Therapies
Status Asthmaticus

Drugs Used in Gastrointestinal Disorders

Introduction to Normal Physiology
Drugs That Increase GI Motility
Drugs That Decrease GI Motility
Pharmacological Modulation of Diarrhea
Pharmacological Modulation of Vomiting
Drugs that Decrease or Neutralize Gastric Acid Secretion
Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Miscellaneous GI Drugs

Drugs Used in Dermatological Disorders

Skin Structure
Percutaneous Absorption
Practical Considerations in Topical Drug Therapy
Topical Glucocorticosteroids
Photodynamic Therapy
Aminolevulinic Acid
Antimalarial Drugs
Antimicrobial Agents
Drugs For Cutaneous Fungal Infections
Drugs For Cutaneous Viral Infections
Drugs Used To Treat Scabies and Lice
Cytotoxic and Immunosuppressive Agents
Topical Immune-Modulating Agents
Drugs Used to Treat Disorders of Pigmentation
Recombinant Proteins and Other Biologicals
Miscellaneous Topical Agents

Drugs for the Control of Supragingival Plaque

The Role of Supragingival Dental Plaque in the Initiation of Gingivitis
Pharmacokinetics of the Oral Cavity
Antiplaque Agents

Introduction to Chemotherapy

Introduction to Chemotherapy
The Patient–Drug–Pathogen Interaction
Managing Chemotherapy

Synthetic Organic Antimicrobials Sulfonamides Trimethoprim Nitrofurans Quinolones Methenamine

Quinolones: Nalidixic Acid and Fluoroquinolones
Urinary Antiseptics

Lactam Antibiotics

?-Lactam Antibiotics
?-Lactam Antibiotics: Mechanism of Action
?-Lactam Antibiotics: Mechanisms of Resistance
Carbapenems and Carbacephems

Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Chemistry
Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Mechanism of Antibacterial Action
Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Mechanism of Antibacterial Resistance
Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Pharmacokinetics
Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Clinical Uses
Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Single Daily Dosing
Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Toxicity

Tetracyclines Chloramphenicol Macrolides and Lincosamides

Macrolide Antibiotics

Bacitracin Glycopeptide Antibiotics and the Polymyxins

Glycopeptides: Vancomycin and Teicoplanin
The Polymyxins

Drugs Used in Tuberculosis and Leprosy

Key Concepts in the Treatment of Tuberculosis
First-Line Antituberculosis Drugs
Second-Line Antituberculous Drugs
Recommendation for the Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection
Recommendations for Treatment of Active Tuberculosis
Treatment of Leprosy

Antiviral Drugs

Viral Infection and Disease
Antiherpesvirus Agents
Antiherpesvirus Agents: Acyclovir and Valacyclovir
Antiherpesvirus Agents: Cidofovir
Antiherpesvirus Agents: Docosanol
Antiherpesvirus Agents: Famciclovir and Penciclovir
Antiherpesvirus Agents: Foscarnet
Antiherpesvirus Agents: Ganciclovir and Valganciclovir
Antiherpesvirus Agents: Idoxuridine
Antiherpesvirus Agents: Trifluridine
Antiherpesvirus Agents: Vidarabine
Antiinfluenza Agents
Antiinfluenza Agents: Amantadine and Rimantadine
Antiinfluenza Agents: Oseltamivir
Antiinfluenza Agents: Zanamivir
Antiviral Agents: Immune Globulin
Antiviral Agents: Interferons
Antiviral Agents: Ribavirin
Antiviral Agents: Lamivudine
Antiviral Agents: Palivizumab

Therapy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Drug Therapy of HIV Infection
Drug Therapy of HIV Infection: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Drug Therapy of HIV Infection: Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Drug Therapy of HIV Infection: Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Drug Therapy of HIV Infection: Protease Inhibitors
The Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnancy

Antifungal Drugs

Antifungal Drugs
Amphotericin B
Nystatin Antifungal Drug
The Azoles Antifungal Drug
Fluconazole Antifungal Drug
Itraconazole Antifungal Drug
Ketoconazole Antifungal Drug
Miconazole Antifungal Drug
Clotrimazole Antifungal Drug
Voriconazole Antifungal Drug
Flucytosine Antifungal Drug
Capsofungin Antifungal Drug
Allylamines Antifungal Drug
Griseofulvin Antifungal Drug
Miscellaneous Topical Antifungal Agents

Antiprotozoal Drugs

Protozoal Diseases
Antiprotozoal Drug: Metronidazole
Antiprotozoal Drug: Iodoquinol
Antiprotozoal Drug: Diloxanide Furoate
Antiprotozoal Drug: Antibiotics
Antiprotozoal Drug: Pentamidine
Antiprotozoal Drug: Suramin
Antiprotozoal Drug: Eflornithine
Antiprotozoal Drug: Arsenicals
Antiprotozoal Drug: Nifurtimox
Antiprotozoal Drug: Antimonials
Antimalarial Drugs
Antimalarial Drugs In Development
Selection of Antimalarial Drugs

Anthelmintic Drugs

Anthelmintic Drugs
Treatment for Infections Caused by Nematodes
Treatment for Infections Caused by Cestodes
Treatment for Infections Caused by Trematodes

The Rational Basis for Cancer Chemotherapy

Concepts in Tumor Cell Biology
Drugs and the Cell Cycle
Tumor Growth and Growth Fraction
The Log Cell Kill Hypothesis
Cancer Chemotherapy: Drug Resistance
Cancer Therapy and the Immune System
General Toxicological Properties of Anticancer Drugs
Pharmacokinetic Considerations in Cancer Chemotherapy
Combination Chemotherapy

Antineoplastic Agents

Alkylating Agents
Alkylating Agents: Nitrogen Mustards
Alkylating Agents: Nitrosoureas
Alkylating Agents: Alkyl Sulfonates
Alkylating Agents: Ethylenimines
Alkylating Agents: Triazenes
Antimetabolites: Folate Antagonists
Antimetabolites: Purine Analogues
Antimetabolites: Pyrimidine Analogues
Antineoplastic Agents: Antibiotics
Antineoplastic Agents: Plant-Derived Products
Antineoplastic Agents: Enzymes
Antineoplastic Agents: Hormone Derivatives
Antineoplastic Agents: Miscellaneous Agents
Immunomodulating Agents
Cellular Growth Factors
New Drug Therapies for Cancer

Immunomodulating Drugs

Autoimmune Diseases
Organ Transplantation
Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases
General Principles of Immunosuppressive Therapy
Individual Drugs Used to Suppress the Immune System
Individual Drugs Used to Stimulate the Immune System

Gene Therapy

Gene Therapy
Gene Therapy: Definition and Goals
Gene Excision and Replacement
Gene Addition
Gene Therapy: Delivery Systems
Disease Application and Future Directions

Hypothalamic and Pituitary Gland Hormones

Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Hypothalamic Regulatory Hormones
Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Gland

Adrenocortical Hormones and Drugs Affecting the Adrenal Cortex

Steroid Physiology
Actions of the Corticosteroids
General Pharmacology of Corticosteroids
Adverse Effects
Therapeutic Uses of Steroid Hormones
Proposed Mechanism of Steroid Action
Drugs Used in the Diagnosis or Treatment of Adrenocortical Abnormalities

Estrogens Progestins and Specific Estrogen Receptor Modulators SERMs

Natural Estrogens and Progestins
Natural Estrogens and Progestins: Mechanisms of Action
Actions of Estrogens and Progestins in Females
Synthetic Agents Acting Via Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs): Clinical Uses
Other clinical uses of estrogens and progestins
Estrogens, Progestins: Adverse Effects
Contraindications and Drug Interactions

Uterine Stimulants and Relaxants

Uterine Stimulants and Relaxants
Uterine Stimulants
Uterine Relaxants

Androgens Antiandrogens and Anabolic Steroids

Characterization of Plasma Androgens
Sex Hormone–Binding Proteins
Regulation of Plasma Testosterone
Androgen: Mechanism of Action
Androgens: Pharmacological Actions
Androgens: Clinical Uses
Androgens: Adverse Effects
Androgens: Antiandrogens

Drugs Used in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction

Drugs Used in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction
Physiology of Penile Erection
Individual Agents

Thyroid and Antithyroid Drugs

Thyroid and Antithyroid Drugs
Biosynthesis, Storage, Secretion, and Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones
Mechanisms of Action of Thyroid Hormones
Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones
Hypothyroid States
Drugs Used in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism
Adverse Effects of Treatment With Thyroid Hormone
Thyroid and Antithyroid Drugs: Drug Interactions
Drugs Used in the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

Parathyroid Hormone Calcitonin Vitamin D

Calcium Homeostasis
Parathyroid Hormone
Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)
Clinical Uses of Parathyroid Hormone
Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, Vitamin D: Adverse Effects

Insulin and Oral Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus

Glucose Homeostasis
Diabetes Mellitus
Metabolic Disturbances and Complications of the Diabetic State
Clinical Management of Diabetes
Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus
Sulfonylureas - Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus
Meglitinides - Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus
Biguanides - Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus
Thiazolidinediones - Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus
?-Glucosidase Inhibitors - Oral Agents For Treating Diabetes Mellitus


Dietary Reference Standards
Vitamins Deficiency Diseases
Vitamin Toxicity
Physiological Function and Dietary Sources - Vitamins
Vitamins: Therapeutic Uses
Vitamin–Drug Interactions

Herbal Medicine

Herbal Medicine
Herbal Medicine Traditions
Herbal Medicine: Potential Concerns
Herbal Medicine: Regulatory Issues
Herbal Preparations: Echinacea
Herbal Preparations: Feverfew
Herbal Preparations: Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract
Herbal Preparations: Ginseng
Herbal Preparations: Kava
Herbal Preparations: Milk Thistle
Herbal Preparations: Saw Palmetto
Herbal Preparations: St. John’s Wort
Herbal Preparations: Soy and Other Phytoestrogens

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