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Iodoquinol (diiodohydroxyquin, Yodoxin, Moebiquin) is a halogenated 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative whose precise mechanism of action is not known but is thought to involve an inactivation of essential parasite enzymes. Iodoquinol kills the trophozoite forms of E. histolytica, B. coli, B. hominis, and Dientamoeba fragilis.
Iodoquinol is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is excreted in the urine as glucuronide and sul-fate conjugates. Most of an orally administered dose is excreted in the feces. Iodoquinol has a plasma half-life of about 12 hours.
Iodoquinol is the drug of choice in the treatment of asymptomatic amebiasis and D. fragilis infections. It is also used in combination with other drugs in the treat-ment of other forms of amebiasis and as an alternative to tetracycline in the treatment of balantidiasis.
Adverse reactions are related to the iodine content of the drug; the toxicity is often expressed as skin reac-tions, thyroid enlargement, and interference with thy-roid function studies. Headache and diarrhea also oc-cur. Chronic use of clioquinol, a closely related agent, has been linked to a myelitislike illness and to optic at-rophy with permanent loss of vision.
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