Convulsions associated with
fever often occur in chil-dren 3 months to 5 years of age. Epilepsy later
develops in approximately 2 to 3% of children who exhibit one or more such
febrile seizures. Most authorities now rec-ommend prophylactic treatment with
anticonvulsant drugs only to patients at highest risk for development of
epilepsy and for those who have multiple recurrent febrile seizures.
Phenobarbital is the usual drug, al-though diazepam is also effective.
Phenytoin and carba-mazepine are ineffective, and valproic acid may cause
hepatotoxicity in very young patients.