CELLULAR GROWTH FACTORS
Filgrastim (Neupogen) is a human recombinant granu-locyte colony–stimulating factor (rG-CSF) produced using recombinant DNA technology. It acts on precur-sor hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow by binding to specific receptors that stimulate cellular proliferation and differentiation into neutrophils. It also enhances some neutrophil functions, including phagocytosis and antibody-dependent killing.
Filgrastim is used to accelerate recovery of neu-trophils after chemotherapy, both to prevent infections and to shorten the duration of neutropenia in patients in whom infections have developed.
The drug is generally well tolerated, with the major adverse reaction being mild to moderate bone pain sec-ondary to stimulation of bone marrow proliferation.
Sargramostim (GM-CSF, Leukine, Prokine) is a human recombinant granulocyte and macrophage colony– stimulating factor that stimulates the production and po-tentiates the function of both granulocytes and macro-phages from hematopoietic progenitor cells. It is used to accelerate bone marrow repopulation after high-dose chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and bone marrow trans-plantation. Adverse effects associated with sargramostim use include bone pain (similar to that of filgrastim), fa-tigue, fevers, skin rash, malaise, and fluid retention.