Modern Analytical Chemistry

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Modern Analytical Chemistry

Introduction


=> Modern Analytical Chemistry: Introduction
=> What Is Analytical Chemistry?
=> The Analytical Perspective
=> Common Analytical Problems

Basic Tools of Analytical Chemistry


=> Numbers in Analytical Chemistry
=> Units for Expressing Concentration
=> Stoichiometric Calculations
=> Basic Equipment and Instrumentation of Analytical Chemistry
=> Preparing Solutions of Analytical Chemistry
=> Analytical Chemistry: The Laboratory Notebook

The Language of Analytical Chemistry


=> Language of Analytical Chemistry
=> Language of Analytical Chemistry: Analysis, Determination, and Measurement
=> Language of Analytical Chemistry: Techniques, Methods, Procedures, and Protocols
=> Classifying Analytical Techniques
=> Selecting an Analytical Method
=> Language of Analytical Chemistry: Developing the Procedure
=> Language of Analytical Chemistry: Protocols
=> The Importance of Analytical Methodology

Evaluating Analytical Data


=> Evaluating Analytical Data
=> Characterizing Measurements and Results
=> Analytical Data: Characterizing Experimental Errors
=> Propagation of Uncertainty
=> The Distribution of Measurements and Results
=> Statistical Analysis of Data
=> Statistical Methods for Normal Distributions
=> Detection Limits

Calibrations Standardizations and Blank Corrections


=> Calibrations, Standardizations, and Blank Corrections
=> Calibrating Signals
=> Standardizing Methods
=> Reagents Used as Standards
=> Standardizing Methods: Single-Point versus Multiple-Point Standardizations
=> Standardizing Methods: External Standards
=> Standardizing Methods: Standard Additions
=> Standardizing Methods: Internal Standards
=> Linear Regression and Calibration Curves
=> Blank Corrections

Equilibrium Chemistry


=> Equilibrium Chemistry
=> Reversible Reactions and Chemical Equilibria
=> Thermodynamics and Equilibrium Chemistry
=> Manipulating Equilibrium Constants
=> Equilibrium Constants for Chemical Reactions
=> Equilibrium Constants for Precipitation Reactions
=> Equilibrium Constants for Acid–Base Reactions
=> Equilibrium Constants for Complexation Reactions
=> Equilibrium Constants for Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
=> Le Chatelier’s Principle
=> Ladder Diagrams
=> Ladder Diagrams for Acid–Base Equilibria
=> Ladder Diagrams for Complexation Equilibria
=> Ladder Diagram for Oxidation–Reduction Equilibria
=> Solving Equilibrium Problems
=> A Simple Problem: Solubility of Pb(IO3)2 in Water
=> A More Complex Problem: The Common Ion Effect
=> Systematic Approach to Solving Equilibrium Problems
=> Solving Equilibrium Problems: pH of a Monoprotic Weak Acid
=> Solving Equilibrium Problems: pH of a Polyprotic Acid or Base
=> Effect of Complexation on Solubility
=> Buffer Solutions
=> Activity Effects
=> Two Final Thoughts About Equilibrium Chemistry

Obtaining and Preparing Samples for Analysis


=> Obtaining and Preparing Samples for Analysis
=> The Importance of Sampling
=> Designing A Sampling Plan
=> Where to Sample the Target Population
=> What Type of Sample to Collect
=> How Much Sample to Collect
=> How Many Samples to Collect
=> Minimizing the Overall Variance
=> Implementing the Sampling Plan
=> Implementing the Sampling Plan: Solutions
=> Implementing the Sampling Plan: Gases
=> Implementing the Sampling Plan: Solids
=> Separating the Analyte from Interferents
=> General Theory of Separation Efficiency
=> Classifying Separation Techniques
=> Classifying Separation Techniques: Separations Based on Size
=> Classifying Separation Techniques: Separations Based on Mass or Density
=> Classifying Separation Techniques: Separations Based on Complexation Reactions (Masking)
=> Classifying Separation Techniques: Separations Based on a Change of State
=> Classifying Separation Techniques: Separations Based on a Partitioning Between Phases
=> Liquid–Liquid Extractions
=> Separation Versus Preconcentration

Gravimetric Methods of Analysis


=> Overview of Gravimetry
=> Precipitation Gravimetry
=> Theory and Practice of Precipitation Gravimetry: Solubility Considerations
=> Theory and Practice of Precipitation Gravimetry: Avoiding Impurities
=> Theory and Practice of Precipitation Gravimetry: Occlusions
=> Theory and Practice of Precipitation Gravimetry: Controlling Particle Size
=> Theory and Practice of Precipitation Gravimetry: Filtering the Precipitate
=> Theory and Practice of Precipitation Gravimetry: Rinsing the Precipitate
=> Theory and Practice of Precipitation Gravimetry: Drying the Precipitate
=> Theory and Practice of Precipitation Gravimetry: Composition of Final Precipitate
=> Theory and Practice of Precipitation Gravimetry: Representative Method
=> Precipitation Gravimetry: Quantitative Applications
=> Precipitation Gravimetry: Qualitative Applications
=> Precipitation Gravimetry: Evaluating Precipitation Gravimetry
=> Volatilization Gravimetry
=> Volatilization Gravimetry: Theory and Practice
=> Volatilization Gravimetry: Quantitative Applications
=> Evaluating Volatilization Gravimetry
=> Particulate Gravimetry
=> Particulate Gravimetry: Theory and Practice
=> Particulate Gravimetry: Quantitative Applications
=> Particulate Gravimetry: Evaluating Particulate Gravimetry

Titrimetric Methods of Analysis


=> Titrimetric Methods of Analysis
=> Overview of Titrimetry
=> Titrations Based on Acid–Base Reactions
=> Acid–Base Titration Curves
=> Selecting and Evaluating the End Point - Titrations Based on Acid–Base Reactions
=> Titrations in Nonaqueous Solvents
=> Titrations Based on Acid–Base Reactions: Representative Method
=> Titrations Based on Acid–Base Reactions: Quantitative Applications
=> Titrations Based on Acid–Base Reactions: Qualitative Applications
=> Titrations Based on Acid–Base Reactions: Characterization Applications
=> Evaluation of Acid–Base Titrimetry
=> Titrations Based on Complexation Reactions
=> Chemistry and Properties of EDTA
=> Complexometric EDTA Titration Curves
=> Selecting and Evaluating the End Point - Titrations Based on Complexation Reactions
=> Representative Method - Titrations Based on Complexation Reactions
=> Quantitative Applications - Titrations Based on Complexation Reactions
=> Evaluation of Complexation Titrimetry
=> Titrations Based on Redox Reactions
=> Redox Titration Curves
=> Selecting and Evaluating the End Point - Titrations Based on Redox Reactions
=> Representative Method - Titrations Based on Redox Reactions
=> Quantitative Applications - Titrations Based on Redox Reactions
=> Evaluation of Redox Titrimetry
=> Precipitation Titrations
=> Precipitation Titration Curves
=> Selecting and Evaluating the End Point - Precipitation Titrations
=> Quantitative Applications - Precipitation Titration
=> Evaluation of Precipitation Titrimetry - Precipitation Titration

Spectroscopic Methods of Analysis


=> Spectroscopic Methods of Analysis
=> Overview of Spectroscopy
=> Basic Components of Spectroscopic Instrumentation
=> Spectroscopy Based on Absorption
=> Absorbance of Electromagnetic Radiation - Spectroscopy Based on Absorption
=> Transmittance and Absorbance - Spectroscopy Based on Absorption
=> Absorbance and Concentration: Beer’s Law
=> Limitations to Beer’s Law
=> Ultraviolet-Visible and Infrared Spectrophotometry
=> Instrument Designs for Molecular UV/Vis Absorption - Ultraviolet-Visible and Infrared Spectrophotometry
=> Instrument Designs for Infrared Absorption - Ultraviolet-Visible and Infrared Spectrophotometry
=> Quantitative Applications - Ultraviolet-Visible and Infrared Spectrophotometry
=> Qualitative Applications - Ultraviolet-Visible and Infrared Spectrophotometry
=> Characterization Applications - Ultraviolet-Visible and Infrared Spectrophotometry
=> Evaluation - Ultraviolet-Visible and Infrared Spectrophotometry
=> Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
=> Instrumentation - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
=> Quantitative Applications - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
=> Evaluation - Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
=> Spectroscopy Based on Emission
=> Molecular Photoluminescence Spectroscopy
=> Molecular Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Spectra - Molecular Photoluminescence Spectroscopy
=> Instrumentation - Molecular Photoluminescence Spectroscopy
=> Quantitative Applications Using Molecular Luminescence
=> Evaluation - Molecular Photoluminescence Spectroscopy
=> Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
=> Atomic Emission Spectra - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
=> Equipment - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
=> Quantitative Applications - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
=> Evaluation - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
=> Spectroscopy Based on Scattering

Electrochemical Methods of Analysis


=> Classification of Electrochemical Methods
=> Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Potentiometric Measurements - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Reference Electrodes - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Metallic Indicator Electrodes - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Membrane Electrodes - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Membrane Potentials - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Selectivity of Membranes - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Glass Ion-Selective Electrodes - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Crystalline Solid-State Ion-Selective Electrodes - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Liquid-Based Ion-Selective Electrodes - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Gas-Sensing Electrodes - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Potentiometric Biosensors - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Quantitative Applications - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Evaluation - Potentiometric Methods of Analysis
=> Coulometric Methods of Analysis
=> Controlled-Potential Coulometry
=> Controlled-Current Coulometry
=> Quantitative Applications - Coulometric Methods of Analysis
=> Characterization Applications - Coulometric Methods of Analysis
=> Evaluation - Coulometric Methods of Analysis
=> Voltammetric Methods of Analysis
=> Voltammetric Measurements
=> Current in Voltammetry
=> Shape of Voltammograms
=> Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects of Voltammetry
=> Voltammetric Techniques
=> Quantitative Applications - Voltammetric Methods of Analysis
=> Characterization Applications - Voltammetric Methods of Analysis
=> Evaluation - Voltammetric Methods of Analysis

Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods


=> Overview of Analytical Separations
=> General Theory of Column Chromatography
=> Chromatographic Resolution - Theory of Column Chromatography
=> Capacity Factor - Theory of Column Chromatography
=> Column Selectivity - Theory of Column Chromatography
=> Column Efficiency - Theory of Column Chromatography
=> Peak Capacity - Theory of Column Chromatography
=> Nonideal Behavior - Theory of Column Chromatography
=> Optimizing Chromatographic Separations
=> Optimizing Chromatographic Separations Using the Capacity Factor to Optimize Resolution
=> Optimizing Chromatographic Separations Using Column Selectivity to Optimize Resolution
=> Optimizing Chromatographic Separations Using Column Efficiency to Optimize Resolution
=> Gas Chromatography: Mobile Phase
=> Gas Chromatography: Chromatographic Columns
=> Gas Chromatography: Stationary Phases
=> Gas Chromatography: Sample Introduction
=> Gas Chromatography: Temperature Control
=> Gas Chromatography: Detectors for Gas Chromatography
=> Gas Chromatography: Quantitative Applications
=> Gas Chromatography: Qualitative Applications
=> Gas Chromatography: Representative Method
=> Gas Chromatography: Evaluation
=> High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
=> High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Columns
=> High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): Stationary Phases
=> High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): Mobile Phases
=> High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Plumbing
=> High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): Sample Introduction
=> High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): Detectors for HPLC
=> High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): Quantitative Applications and Representative Method
=> High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): Evaluation
=> Liquid–Solid Adsorption Chromatography
=> Ion-Exchange Chromatography
=> Size-Exclusion Chromatography
=> Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
=> Electrophoresis
=> Theory of Capillary Electrophoresis
=> Electrophoresis: Instrumentation
=> Capillary Electrophoresis Methods
=> Electrophoresis: Representative Method and Evaluation

Kinetic Methods of Analysis


=> Kinetic Methods of Analysis
=> Methods Based on Chemical Kinetics
=> Methods Based on Chemical Kinetics: Theory and Practice
=> Methods Based on Chemical Kinetics: Instrumentation
=> Methods Based on Chemical Kinetics: Quantitative Applications
=> Methods Based on Chemical Kinetics: Characterization Applications
=> Evaluation of Chemical Kinetic Methods
=> Radiochemical Methods of Analysis
=> Radiochemical Methods of Analysis: Theory and Practice
=> Radiochemical Methods of Analysis: Instrumentation
=> Radiochemical Methods of Analysis: Quantitative Applications
=> Radiochemical Methods of Analysis: Characterization Applications
=> Radiochemical Methods of Analysis: Evaluation
=> Flow Injection Analysis
=> Flow Injection Analysis: Theory and Practice
=> Flow Injection Analysis: Instrumentation
=> Flow Injection Analysis: Quantitative Applications
=> Flow Injection Analysis: Evaluation

Developing a Standard Method


=> Developing a Standard Method
=> Optimizing the Experimental Procedure
=> Optimizing the Experimental Procedure: Response Surfaces
=> Searching Algorithms for Response Surfaces
=> Mathematical Models of Response Surfaces
=> Verifying the Method
=> Validating the Method as a Standard Method
=> Two-Sample Collaborative Testing
=> Collaborative Testing and Analysis of Variance
=> What Is a Reasonable Result for a Collaborative Study?

Uality Assurance


=> Uality Assurance
=> Quality Control
=> Quality Assessment
=> Evaluating Quality Assurance Data: Prescriptive Approach
=> Evaluating Quality Assurance Data: Performance-Based Approach



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