Physics

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Physics

Nature of the Physical World and Measurement


=> Scope of Physics
=> Physics, Technology and Society
=> Forces of nature
=> Measurement
=> Derived quantities and their units
=> SI standards
=> Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols
=> Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities
=> Determination of distance, mass, time
=> Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments
=> Measurement: Significant figures
=> Measurement: Rounding off
=> Classification of Errors in Measurement
=> Dimensional Analysis
=> Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis

Kinematics


=> Kinematics - Rest and Motion
=> Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion)
=> Equations of motion
=> Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time graph
=> Representation of a vector quantities
=> Different types of vectors
=> Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors
=> Subtraction of vectors
=> Resolution of vectors and rectangular components
=> Multiplication of two vectors
=> Projectile motion
=> Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally
=> Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique projection)
=> Newton's first law of motion
=> Three types of the inertia
=> Examples for Newton's first law of motion
=> Newton's second law of motion
=> Impulsive force and Impulse of a force
=> Newton's third Law of motion
=> Applications of Newton s third law of motion
=> Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum
=> Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces
=> Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces
=> Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's theorem
=> Uniform circular motion
=> Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity
=> Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction
=> Applications of centripetal forces
=> Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding
=> Motion in a vertical circle
=> Motion on a level circular road
=> Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force
=> Potential energy and Kinetic energy
=> Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement
=> Conservative forces and non-conservative forces
=> Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision

Dynamics of Rotational Motion


=> Centre of mass
=> Centre of gravity
=> Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium
=> Rotational motion of rigid bodies
=> Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body
=> Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes theorem
=> Moment of a force
=> Couple and moment of the couple (Torque)
=> Angular momentum of a rigid body
=> Relation between torque and angular acceleration
=> Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration

Gravitation and Space Science


=> Newton's law of gravitation
=> Acceleration due to gravity
=> Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth
=> Variation of acceleration due to gravity
=> Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy
=> Inertial mass and Gravitational mass
=> Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet
=> Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy
=> Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites
=> Uses of satellites
=> Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch Vehicles (Rockets)
=> Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels
=> The Solar system
=> Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods
=> Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets
=> Conditions for life on any planet
=> Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system
=> Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system
=> Milky Way galaxy
=> Origin of the Universe

Mechanics of Solids and Fluids


=> Mechanics of Solids and Fluids
=> Intermolecular or interatomic forces
=> Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law
=> Experimental verification of Hooke's law
=> Study of stress - strain relationship
=> Three moduli of elasticity
=> Relation between the three moduli of elasticity
=> Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method
=> Applications of modulus of elasticity
=> Pressure due to a liquid column
=> Pascal's law and effect of gravity
=> Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake
=> Co-efficient of viscosity
=> Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow
=> Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids)
=> Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow method
=> Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force
=> Experiments to demonstrate surface tension
=> Molecular theory of surface tension
=> Fluid Surface energy and surface tension
=> Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble
=> Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity
=> Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise method
=> Factors affecting and Applications surface tension
=> Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy
=> Fluid Equation of continuity
=> Bernoulli's theorem
=> Application of Bernoulli's theorem

Oscillations


=> The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM
=> Important terms in simple harmonic motion
=> Dynamics of harmonic oscillations
=> Angular harmonic oscillator
=> Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring
=> Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube
=> Oscillations of a simple pendulum
=> Laws of pendulum
=> Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion
=> Types of oscillations

Wave Motion


=> Characteristics of wave motion
=> Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion
=> Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave
=> Velocity of wave in different media
=> Laplace?s correction
=> Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases
=> Equation of a plane progressive wave
=> Characteristics of progressive wave
=> Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level
=> Applications of reflection of sound waves
=> Applications of refraction of sound
=> Superposition principle of waves
=> Interference of waves
=> Experimental demonstration of interference of sound
=> Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats
=> Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves
=> Standing waves in strings - Sonometer
=> Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes
=> Resonance air column apparatus
=> Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications

Heat and Thermodynamics


=> Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction
=> Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases
=> Pressure exerted by a gas
=> Degrees of freedom of molecule
=> Law of equipartition of energy
=> Thermal equilibrium
=> Molar specific heat capacity of a gas
=> First law of thermodynamics
=> Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation)
=> Indicator diagram (P-V diagram)
=> Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion
=> Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion
=> Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes
=> Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's statement
=> Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations
=> Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences
=> Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation
=> Perfect black body
=> Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling
=> Surface temperature of the Sun
=> Angstrom pyrheliometer

Ray Optics


=> Reflection of light
=> Image in a plane mirror
=> Reflection at curved surfaces
=> Total internal reflection
=> Applications of Total internal reflection
=> Michelson's method
=> Importance of velocity of light
=> Refraction of light
=> Refraction at a spherical surface
=> Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification
=> Combination of thin lenses in contact
=> Refraction of light through a prism
=> Dispersion of light and Dispersive power
=> Spectrometer
=> Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer
=> Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism
=> Formation of rainbows

Magnetism


=> Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements
=> Basic properties of magnets
=> Force between two magnetic poles
=> Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet)
=> Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet
=> Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet
=> Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field
=> Tangent law
=> End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer
=> Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer
=> Magnetic properties of materials
=> Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances
=> Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss
=> Uses of ferromagnetic materials

Electrostatics


=> Electrostatics - frictional electricity
=> Basic properties of electric charge
=> Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field, Electric Field Intensity (E)
=> Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines of forces
=> Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between electric field and potential
=> Gauss's law and its applications
=> Electrostatic induction
=> Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor
=> Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and construction

Current Electricity


=> Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity
=> Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel
=> Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer
=> Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors
=> Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors
=> Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell
=> Electric energy and electric power
=> Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification of Faraday's laws of electrolysis
=> Electric cells and Voltaic cell
=> Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell
=> Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary cells

Effects of Electric Current


=> Applications of Joule heating
=> Seebeck effect
=> Neutral and Inversion temperature
=> Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π)
=> Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ)
=> Thermopile
=> Biot - Savart Law
=> Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent galvanometer
=> Solenoid and Right hand palm rule
=> Magnetic Lorentz force
=> Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of Cyclotron
=> Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer
=> Heating effect : Joule's law
=> Verification of Joule's law
=> Magnetic effect of current
=> Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current
=> Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current
=> Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction
=> Ampere's Circuital Law
=> Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current
=> Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron
=> Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field
=> Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field
=> Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors
=> Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field
=> Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter
=> Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter
=> Current loop as a magnetic dipole
=> The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current


=> AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) - Three phase
=> Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current
=> Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a transformer
=> Electromagnetic induction
=> Magnetic flux
=> Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction
=> Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction
=> Lenz's law
=> Self Induction
=> Coefficient of self induction
=> Self inductance of a long solenoid
=> Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction
=> Methods of producing induced emf
=> AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase
=> Eddy currents
=> Transformer
=> Long distance power transmission
=> Alternating current
=> AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor
=> Choke coil: Construction and Working

Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics


=> Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life
=> Uses of electromagnetic spectrum
=> Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum, Absorption Spectra
=> Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence
=> Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic theory, Quantum theory
=> Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect
=> Wave front : Huygen's principle
=> Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
=> Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory
=> Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction
=> Diffraction grating explanation with Theory
=> Polarisation of transverse waves
=> Double refraction
=> Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid
=> Nicol prism and Types of crystals
=> Optical activity
=> Specific rotation
=> Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics
=> Characteristics of electromagnetic waves
=> Hertz experiment
=> Types of spectra
=> Theories of light
=> Scattering of light
=> Wave front
=> Superposition principle
=> Diffraction
=> Polarisation

Atomic Physics


=> Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of electrons
=> Properties of Cathode rays
=> Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays
=> Thomson's method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an electron
=> Millikan's oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron
=> Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks
=> Rutherford's α - particle scattering experiment
=> Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks
=> Bohr atom model
=> Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram
=> Excitation and ionization potential of an atom
=> Shortcomings of Bohr's theory
=> Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks
=> Production of X-rays - Modern Coolidge tube
=> Types of X-rays: Soft and Hard X-rays
=> Properties of X-rays
=> Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X-rays
=> Laue experiment
=> Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction
=> Bragg's X-ray spectrometer
=> X-ray spectra - continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra
=> Moseley's law and Applications of Moseley's law
=> Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X-rays
=> Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser
=> Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
=> Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
=> Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Relativity


=> Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation
=> Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect
=> Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current
=> Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential
=> Laws of photoelectric emission
=> Einstein's photoelectric equation
=> Photoelectric cells and their types, applications
=> de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron
=> Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations
=> Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference
=> Special theory of relativity
=> Einstein's mass-energy equivalence

Nuclear Physics


=> Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size
=> Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve
=> Bainbridge mass spectrometer - Determination of isotopic masses of nuclei
=> Nuclear force and Radioactivity
=> Properties of Alpha α, beta β and gamma γ rays
=> Radioactive displacement law
=> Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons
=> Artificial radioactivity
=> Applications of radio-isotopes
=> Biological hazards of nuclear radiations
=> Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators
=> Geiger - Muller counter: Construction and Operation
=> Energy released in Nuclear fission
=> Radioactive Chain reaction
=> Atom bomb - Principle and construction
=> Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses
=> Nuclear power programme in India
=> Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy
=> Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers
=> Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles

Semiconductor Devices and their Applications


=> Semiconductors: Energy band in solids
=> Semiconductors: Valence band, conduction band and forbidden energy gap
=> Insulators, semiconductors and conductors - forbidden energy gap
=> Electrons and holes in semiconductors
=> Intrinsic semiconductor
=> Extrinsic semiconductor: N and P -type semiconductor
=> PN Junction diode: Forward and Reverse bias characteristics
=> PN junction diode as Half wave and Bridge wave rectifier
=> Avalanche and zener Breakdown mechanisms
=> Zener diode and Zener diode as voltage regulator
=> Light Emitting Diode (LED)
=> Junction transistor
=> Working of a PNP transistor
=> Transistor circuit configurations
=> Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration
=> Transistor as a switch
=> Transistor amplifier - Operating point, Working
=> Transistor biasing - Voltage divider bias
=> Single stage CE amplifier
=> Multistage amplifiers
=> Feedback in amplifiers- Principle of feedback and
=> Transistor oscillators - Barkhausen condition for oscillation
=> Generation of sinusoidal waves by a tuned LC circuit
=> Essentials of LC oscillator
=> Colpitt's oscillator
=> Integrated circuit (IC)
=> Digital electronics - Analog signal, Digital signal and logic levels
=> Basic logic gates using discrete components
=> Operational amplifier (OP - AMP)
=> Circuit symbol and Pin-out configuration of an OP-AMP
=> Basic OP-AMP circuits: Inverting, Non-inverting, Summing, Difference amplifier
=> Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO)
=> Multimeter

Communication Systems


=> Propagation of electromagnetic waves
=> Amplitude modulation (AM): Modulation factor, Analysis, Advantages, Limitations
=> Frequency modulation (FM): Advantages and Disadvantages
=> Phase modulation (PM)
=> Radio transmission - AM, FM transmitter and AF, RF section
=> Radio reception: simple, AM and FM receiver
=> Television: Construction and Working of Vidicon camera tube
=> Television: Scanning and synchronising
=> Monochrome picture tube
=> Monochrome TV transmission
=> Monochrome TV receiver
=> RADAR: Principle, Applications, Transmission and reception of radar
=> Analog communication and digital communication
=> Modem and Fax (or) Facsimile
=> Wire and Cable
=> Fiber optical communication: Advantages, Applications
=> Satellite Communication: Merits and Demerits



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