# Physics

## Nature of the Physical World and Measurement

Scope of Physics
Physics, Technology and Society
Forces of nature
Measurement
Derived quantities and their units
SI standards
Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols
Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities
Determination of distance, mass, time
Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments
Measurement: Significant figures
Measurement: Rounding off
Classification of Errors in Measurement
Dimensional Analysis
Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis

## Kinematics

Kinematics - Rest and Motion
Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion)
Equations of motion
Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time graph
Representation of a vector quantities
Different types of vectors
Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors
Subtraction of vectors
Resolution of vectors and rectangular components
Multiplication of two vectors
Projectile motion
Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally
Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique projection)
Newton's first law of motion
Three types of the inertia
Examples for Newton's first law of motion
Newton's second law of motion
Impulsive force and Impulse of a force
Newton's third Law of motion
Applications of Newton s third law of motion
Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum
Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces
Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces
Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's theorem
Uniform circular motion
Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity
Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction
Applications of centripetal forces
Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding
Motion in a vertical circle
Motion on a level circular road
Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force
Potential energy and Kinetic energy
Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement
Conservative forces and non-conservative forces
Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision

## Dynamics of Rotational Motion

Centre of mass
Centre of gravity
Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium
Rotational motion of rigid bodies
Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body
Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes theorem
Moment of a force
Couple and moment of the couple (Torque)
Angular momentum of a rigid body
Relation between torque and angular acceleration
Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration

## Gravitation and Space Science

Newton's law of gravitation
Acceleration due to gravity
Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth
Variation of acceleration due to gravity
Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy
Inertial mass and Gravitational mass
Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet
Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy
Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites
Uses of satellites
Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch Vehicles (Rockets)
Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels
The Solar system
Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods
Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets
Conditions for life on any planet
Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system
Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system
Milky Way galaxy
Origin of the Universe

## Mechanics of Solids and Fluids

Mechanics of Solids and Fluids
Intermolecular or interatomic forces
Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law
Experimental verification of Hooke's law
Study of stress - strain relationship
Three moduli of elasticity
Relation between the three moduli of elasticity
Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method
Applications of modulus of elasticity
Pressure due to a liquid column
Pascal's law and effect of gravity
Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake
Co-efficient of viscosity
Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow
Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids)
Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow method
Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force
Experiments to demonstrate surface tension
Molecular theory of surface tension
Fluid Surface energy and surface tension
Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble
Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity
Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise method
Factors affecting and Applications surface tension
Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy
Fluid Equation of continuity
Bernoulli's theorem
Application of Bernoulli's theorem

## Oscillations

The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM
Important terms in simple harmonic motion
Dynamics of harmonic oscillations
Angular harmonic oscillator
Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring
Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube
Oscillations of a simple pendulum
Laws of pendulum
Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion
Types of oscillations

## Wave Motion

Characteristics of wave motion
Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion
Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave
Velocity of wave in different media
Laplace?s correction
Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases
Equation of a plane progressive wave
Characteristics of progressive wave
Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level
Applications of reflection of sound waves
Applications of refraction of sound
Superposition principle of waves
Interference of waves
Experimental demonstration of interference of sound
Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats
Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves
Standing waves in strings - Sonometer
Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes
Resonance air column apparatus
Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications

## Heat and Thermodynamics

Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction
Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases
Pressure exerted by a gas
Degrees of freedom of molecule
Law of equipartition of energy
Thermal equilibrium
Molar specific heat capacity of a gas
First law of thermodynamics
Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation)
Indicator diagram (P-V diagram)
Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion
Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes
Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's statement
Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations
Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences
Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation
Perfect black body
Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling
Surface temperature of the Sun
Angstrom pyrheliometer

## Ray Optics

Reflection of light
Image in a plane mirror
Reflection at curved surfaces
Total internal reflection
Applications of Total internal reflection
Michelson's method
Importance of velocity of light
Refraction of light
Refraction at a spherical surface
Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification
Combination of thin lenses in contact
Refraction of light through a prism
Dispersion of light and Dispersive power
Spectrometer
Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer
Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism
Formation of rainbows

## Magnetism

Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements
Basic properties of magnets
Force between two magnetic poles
Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet)
Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet
Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet
Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field
Tangent law
End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer
Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer
Magnetic properties of materials
Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances
Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss
Uses of ferromagnetic materials

## Electrostatics

Electrostatics - frictional electricity
Basic properties of electric charge
Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field, Electric Field Intensity (E)
Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines of forces
Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between electric field and potential
Gauss's law and its applications
Electrostatic induction
Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor
Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and construction

## Current Electricity

Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity
Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel
Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer
Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors
Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors
Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell
Electric energy and electric power
Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification of Faraday's laws of electrolysis
Electric cells and Voltaic cell
Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell
Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary cells

## Effects of Electric Current

Applications of Joule heating
Seebeck effect
Neutral and Inversion temperature
Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (?)
Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (?)
Thermopile
Biot - Savart Law
Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent galvanometer
Solenoid and Right hand palm rule
Magnetic Lorentz force
Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of Cyclotron
Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer
Heating effect : Joule's law
Verification of Joule's law
Magnetic effect of current
Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current
Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current
Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction
Ampere's Circuital Law
Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current
Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron
Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field
Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field
Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors
Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field
Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter
Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter
Current loop as a magnetic dipole
The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron

## Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) - Three phase
Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current
Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a transformer
Electromagnetic induction
Magnetic flux
Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction
Lenz's law
Self Induction
Coefficient of self induction
Self inductance of a long solenoid
Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction
Methods of producing induced emf
AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase
Eddy currents
Transformer
Long distance power transmission
Alternating current
AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor
Choke coil: Construction and Working

## Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics

Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life
Uses of electromagnetic spectrum
Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum, Absorption Spectra
Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence
Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic theory, Quantum theory
Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect
Wave front : Huygen's principle
Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory
Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction
Diffraction grating explanation with Theory
Polarisation of transverse waves
Double refraction
Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid
Nicol prism and Types of crystals
Optical activity
Specific rotation
Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics
Characteristics of electromagnetic waves
Hertz experiment
Types of spectra
Theories of light
Scattering of light
Wave front
Superposition principle
Diffraction
Polarisation

## Atomic Physics

Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of electrons
Properties of Cathode rays
Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays
Thomson's method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an electron
Millikan's oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron
Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks
Rutherford's ? - particle scattering experiment
Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks
Bohr atom model
Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram
Excitation and ionization potential of an atom
Shortcomings of Bohr's theory
Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks
Production of X-rays - Modern Coolidge tube
Types of X-rays: Soft and Hard X-rays
Properties of X-rays
Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X-rays
Laue experiment
Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction
Bragg's X-ray spectrometer
X-ray spectra - continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra
Moseley's law and Applications of Moseley's law
Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X-rays
Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser
Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser

## Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Relativity

Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation
Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect
Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current
Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential
Laws of photoelectric emission
Einstein's photoelectric equation
Photoelectric cells and their types, applications
de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron
Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations
Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference
Special theory of relativity
Einstein's mass-energy equivalence

## Nuclear Physics

Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size
Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve
Bainbridge mass spectrometer - Determination of isotopic masses of nuclei
Properties of Alpha ?, beta ? and gamma ? rays
Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons
Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators
Geiger - Muller counter: Construction and Operation
Energy released in Nuclear fission
Atom bomb - Principle and construction
Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses
Nuclear power programme in India
Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy
Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers
Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles

## Semiconductor Devices and their Applications

Semiconductors: Energy band in solids
Semiconductors: Valence band, conduction band and forbidden energy gap
Insulators, semiconductors and conductors - forbidden energy gap
Electrons and holes in semiconductors
Intrinsic semiconductor
Extrinsic semiconductor: N and P -type semiconductor
PN Junction diode: Forward and Reverse bias characteristics
PN junction diode as Half wave and Bridge wave rectifier
Avalanche and zener Breakdown mechanisms
Zener diode and Zener diode as voltage regulator
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Junction transistor
Working of a PNP transistor
Transistor circuit configurations
Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration
Transistor as a switch
Transistor amplifier - Operating point, Working
Transistor biasing - Voltage divider bias
Single stage CE amplifier
Multistage amplifiers
Feedback in amplifiers- Principle of feedback and
Transistor oscillators - Barkhausen condition for oscillation
Generation of sinusoidal waves by a tuned LC circuit
Essentials of LC oscillator
Colpitt's oscillator
Integrated circuit (IC)
Digital electronics - Analog signal, Digital signal and logic levels
Basic logic gates using discrete components
Operational amplifier (OP - AMP)
Circuit symbol and Pin-out configuration of an OP-AMP
Basic OP-AMP circuits: Inverting, Non-inverting, Summing, Difference amplifier
Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO)
Multimeter

## Communication Systems

Propagation of electromagnetic waves
Amplitude modulation (AM): Modulation factor, Analysis, Advantages, Limitations
Phase modulation (PM)
Radio transmission - AM, FM transmitter and AF, RF section
Television: Construction and Working of Vidicon camera tube
Television: Scanning and synchronising
Monochrome picture tube
Monochrome TV transmission
Analog communication and digital communication
Modem and Fax (or) Facsimile
Wire and Cable
Satellite Communication: Merits and Demerits