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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Class Physics sciense Higher secondary school College Notes

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Relation between torque and angular acceleration

Relation between torque and angular acceleration
The force acting on a particle of mass m1 situated at A, at a distance r1, from the axis of rotation = mass ? acceleration

Relation between torque and angular acceleration

 

Let us consider a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis X0X with angular velocity ω (Fig.).

 

The force acting on a particle of mass m1 situated at A, at a distance r1, from the axis of rotation = mass ? acceleration

 

= m1 ? d/dt(r1ω)

 = (m1 r1)dω /dt

= (m1 r1)d2θ/dt2

The moment of this force about the axis of rotation

= Force ? perpendicular distance

= (m1 r1)d2θ/dt2   x r1

Therefore, the total moment of all the forces acting on all the particles

or τ = Iα

where ∑ m1r12 = moment of inertia I of the rigid body and α = d2 θ /dt2 angular acceleration.

 

Relation between torque and angular momentum

 

The angular momentum of a rotating rigid body is, L = I ω

Differentiating the above equation with respect to time,

dL/dt = I(d ω /dt) = Ia

where α = dω/dt   angular acceleration of the body.

But torque τ = Iα

Therefore, torque τ = dL/dt

Thus the rate of change of angular momentum of a body is equal to the external torque acting upon the body.



Conservation of angular momentum

The angular momentum of a rotating rigid body is, L = I ω

The torque acting on a rigid body is, τ = dL/dt

When no external torque acts on the system, τ =dL/ dt  = 0

(i.e) L = I ω = constant

 

Total angular momentum of the body = constant

 

(i.e.) when no external torque acts on the body, the net angular momentum of a rotating rigid body remains constant. This is known as law of conservation of angular momentum.

 

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