According to Newton's second law of motion (F = ma), the mass of a body can be determined by measuring the acceleration produced in it by a constant force. (i.e) m = F/a. Intertial mass of a body is a measure of the ability of a body to oppose the production of acceleration in it by an external force.

**Inertial mass**

According to Newton's second law
of motion (F = ma), the mass of a body can be determined by measuring the
acceleration produced in it by a
constant force. (i.e) *m* = *F*/*a*.
*Intertial mass of a body is a measure*
*of the ability of a body to oppose the
production of acceleration in it by an external force.*

If a constant force acts on two
masses *m _{A}* and

*m _{A/} m_{B = }a_{A
/}a_{B}*

The ratio of
two masses is independent of the constant force. If the same force is applied
on two different bodies, the inertial mass of the body is more in which the
acceleration produced is less.

If one of the two masses is a
standard kilogram, the unknown mass can be determined by comparing their
accelerations.

**Gravitational mass**

According to
Newton's law of gravitation, the gravitational force on a body is proportional
to its mass. We can measure the mass of a body by measuring the gravitational
force exerted on it by a massive body like Earth. *Gravitational mass is the mass of a body which determines the* *magnitude of gravitational pull between the
body and the Earth. *This is* *determined
with the help of a beam balance.

If *F _{A}* and

*F _{A} *= Gm

*F _{B} *= Gm

where M is mass of the Earth, R
is the radius of the Earth and G is the gravitational constant.

*m _{A/} m_{B = }F_{A
/}F_{B}*

*If one of the two masses is a standard kilogram, the unknown
mass can be determined by comparing the gravitational forces.*

* *

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11th 12th std standard Class Physics sciense Higher secondary school College Notes : Inertial mass and Gravitational mass |

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