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Physics

Nature of the Physical World and Measurement


-:- Scope of Physics
-:- Physics, Technology and Society
-:- Forces of nature
-:- Measurement
-:- Derived quantities and their units
-:- SI standards
-:- Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols
-:- Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities
-:- Determination of distance, mass, time
-:- Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments
-:- Measurement: Significant figures
-:- Measurement: Rounding off
-:- Classification of Errors in Measurement
-:- Dimensional Analysis
-:- Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis

Kinematics


-:- Kinematics - Rest and Motion
-:- Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion)
-:- Equations of motion
-:- Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time graph
-:- Representation of a vector quantities
-:- Different types of vectors
-:- Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors
-:- Subtraction of vectors
-:- Resolution of vectors and rectangular components
-:- Multiplication of two vectors
-:- Projectile motion
-:- Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally
-:- Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique projection)
-:- Newton's first law of motion
-:- Three types of the inertia
-:- Examples for Newton's first law of motion
-:- Newton's second law of motion
-:- Impulsive force and Impulse of a force
-:- Newton's third Law of motion
-:- Applications of Newton s third law of motion
-:- Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum
-:- Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces
-:- Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces
-:- Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's theorem
-:- Uniform circular motion
-:- Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity
-:- Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction
-:- Applications of centripetal forces
-:- Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding
-:- Motion in a vertical circle
-:- Motion on a level circular road
-:- Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force
-:- Potential energy and Kinetic energy
-:- Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement
-:- Conservative forces and non-conservative forces
-:- Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision

Dynamics of Rotational Motion


-:- Centre of mass
-:- Centre of gravity
-:- Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium
-:- Rotational motion of rigid bodies
-:- Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body
-:- Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes theorem
-:- Moment of a force
-:- Couple and moment of the couple (Torque)
-:- Angular momentum of a rigid body
-:- Relation between torque and angular acceleration
-:- Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration

Gravitation and Space Science


-:- Newton's law of gravitation
-:- Acceleration due to gravity
-:- Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth
-:- Variation of acceleration due to gravity
-:- Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy
-:- Inertial mass and Gravitational mass
-:- Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet
-:- Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy
-:- Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites
-:- Uses of satellites
-:- Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch Vehicles (Rockets)
-:- Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels
-:- The Solar system
-:- Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods
-:- Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets
-:- Conditions for life on any planet
-:- Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system
-:- Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system
-:- Milky Way galaxy
-:- Origin of the Universe

Mechanics of Solids and Fluids


-:- Mechanics of Solids and Fluids
-:- Intermolecular or interatomic forces
-:- Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law
-:- Experimental verification of Hooke's law
-:- Study of stress - strain relationship
-:- Three moduli of elasticity
-:- Relation between the three moduli of elasticity
-:- Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method
-:- Applications of modulus of elasticity
-:- Pressure due to a liquid column
-:- Pascal's law and effect of gravity
-:- Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake
-:- Co-efficient of viscosity
-:- Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow
-:- Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids)
-:- Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow method
-:- Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force
-:- Experiments to demonstrate surface tension
-:- Molecular theory of surface tension
-:- Fluid Surface energy and surface tension
-:- Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble
-:- Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity
-:- Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise method
-:- Factors affecting and Applications surface tension
-:- Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy
-:- Fluid Equation of continuity
-:- Bernoulli's theorem
-:- Application of Bernoulli's theorem

Oscillations


-:- The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM
-:- Important terms in simple harmonic motion
-:- Dynamics of harmonic oscillations
-:- Angular harmonic oscillator
-:- Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring
-:- Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube
-:- Oscillations of a simple pendulum
-:- Laws of pendulum
-:- Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion
-:- Types of oscillations

Wave Motion


-:- Characteristics of wave motion
-:- Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion
-:- Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave
-:- Velocity of wave in different media
-:- Laplace?s correction
-:- Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases
-:- Equation of a plane progressive wave
-:- Characteristics of progressive wave
-:- Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level
-:- Applications of reflection of sound waves
-:- Applications of refraction of sound
-:- Superposition principle of waves
-:- Interference of waves
-:- Experimental demonstration of interference of sound
-:- Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats
-:- Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves
-:- Standing waves in strings - Sonometer
-:- Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes
-:- Resonance air column apparatus
-:- Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications

Heat and Thermodynamics


-:- Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction
-:- Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases
-:- Pressure exerted by a gas
-:- Degrees of freedom of molecule
-:- Law of equipartition of energy
-:- Thermal equilibrium
-:- Molar specific heat capacity of a gas
-:- First law of thermodynamics
-:- Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation)
-:- Indicator diagram (P-V diagram)
-:- Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion
-:- Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion
-:- Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes
-:- Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's statement
-:- Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations
-:- Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences
-:- Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation
-:- Perfect black body
-:- Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling
-:- Surface temperature of the Sun
-:- Angstrom pyrheliometer

Ray Optics


-:- Reflection of light
-:- Image in a plane mirror
-:- Reflection at curved surfaces
-:- Total internal reflection
-:- Applications of Total internal reflection
-:- Michelson's method
-:- Importance of velocity of light
-:- Refraction of light
-:- Refraction at a spherical surface
-:- Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification
-:- Combination of thin lenses in contact
-:- Refraction of light through a prism
-:- Dispersion of light and Dispersive power
-:- Spectrometer
-:- Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer
-:- Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism
-:- Formation of rainbows

Magnetism


-:- Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements
-:- Basic properties of magnets
-:- Force between two magnetic poles
-:- Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet)
-:- Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet
-:- Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet
-:- Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field
-:- Tangent law
-:- End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer
-:- Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer
-:- Magnetic properties of materials
-:- Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances
-:- Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss
-:- Uses of ferromagnetic materials

Electrostatics


-:- Electrostatics - frictional electricity
-:- Basic properties of electric charge
-:- Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field, Electric Field Intensity (E)
-:- Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines of forces
-:- Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between electric field and potential
-:- Gauss's law and its applications
-:- Electrostatic induction
-:- Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor
-:- Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and construction

Current Electricity


-:- Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity
-:- Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel
-:- Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer
-:- Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors
-:- Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors
-:- Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell
-:- Electric energy and electric power
-:- Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification of Faraday's laws of electrolysis
-:- Electric cells and Voltaic cell
-:- Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell
-:- Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary cells

Effects of Electric Current


-:- Applications of Joule heating
-:- Seebeck effect
-:- Neutral and Inversion temperature
-:- Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π)
-:- Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ)
-:- Thermopile
-:- Biot - Savart Law
-:- Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent galvanometer
-:- Solenoid and Right hand palm rule
-:- Magnetic Lorentz force
-:- Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of Cyclotron
-:- Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer
-:- Heating effect : Joule's law
-:- Verification of Joule's law
-:- Magnetic effect of current
-:- Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current
-:- Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current
-:- Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction
-:- Ampere's Circuital Law
-:- Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current
-:- Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron
-:- Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field
-:- Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field
-:- Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors
-:- Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field
-:- Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter
-:- Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter
-:- Current loop as a magnetic dipole
-:- The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current


-:- AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) - Three phase
-:- Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current
-:- Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a transformer
-:- Electromagnetic induction
-:- Magnetic flux
-:- Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction
-:- Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction
-:- Lenz's law
-:- Self Induction
-:- Coefficient of self induction
-:- Self inductance of a long solenoid
-:- Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction
-:- Methods of producing induced emf
-:- AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase
-:- Eddy currents
-:- Transformer
-:- Long distance power transmission
-:- Alternating current
-:- AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor
-:- Choke coil: Construction and Working

Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics


-:- Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life
-:- Uses of electromagnetic spectrum
-:- Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum, Absorption Spectra
-:- Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence
-:- Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic theory, Quantum theory
-:- Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect
-:- Wave front : Huygen's principle
-:- Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
-:- Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory
-:- Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction
-:- Diffraction grating explanation with Theory
-:- Polarisation of transverse waves
-:- Double refraction
-:- Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid
-:- Nicol prism and Types of crystals
-:- Optical activity
-:- Specific rotation
-:- Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics
-:- Characteristics of electromagnetic waves
-:- Hertz experiment
-:- Types of spectra
-:- Theories of light
-:- Scattering of light
-:- Wave front
-:- Superposition principle
-:- Diffraction
-:- Polarisation

Atomic Physics


-:- Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of electrons
-:- Properties of Cathode rays
-:- Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays
-:- Thomson's method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an electron
-:- Millikan's oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron
-:- Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks
-:- Rutherford's α - particle scattering experiment
-:- Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks
-:- Bohr atom model
-:- Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram
-:- Excitation and ionization potential of an atom
-:- Shortcomings of Bohr's theory
-:- Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks
-:- Production of X-rays - Modern Coolidge tube
-:- Types of X-rays: Soft and Hard X-rays
-:- Properties of X-rays
-:- Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X-rays
-:- Laue experiment
-:- Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction
-:- Bragg's X-ray spectrometer
-:- X-ray spectra - continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra
-:- Moseley's law and Applications of Moseley's law
-:- Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X-rays
-:- Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser
-:- Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
-:- Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
-:- Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Relativity


-:- Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation
-:- Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect
-:- Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current
-:- Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential
-:- Laws of photoelectric emission
-:- Einstein's photoelectric equation
-:- Photoelectric cells and their types, applications
-:- de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron
-:- Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations
-:- Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference
-:- Special theory of relativity
-:- Einstein's mass-energy equivalence

Nuclear Physics


-:- Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size
-:- Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve
-:- Bainbridge mass spectrometer - Determination of isotopic masses of nuclei
-:- Nuclear force and Radioactivity
-:- Properties of Alpha α, beta β and gamma γ rays
-:- Radioactive displacement law
-:- Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons
-:- Artificial radioactivity
-:- Applications of radio-isotopes
-:- Biological hazards of nuclear radiations
-:- Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators
-:- Geiger - Muller counter: Construction and Operation
-:- Energy released in Nuclear fission
-:- Radioactive Chain reaction
-:- Atom bomb - Principle and construction
-:- Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses
-:- Nuclear power programme in India
-:- Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy
-:- Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers
-:- Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles

Semiconductor Devices and their Applications


-:- Semiconductors: Energy band in solids
-:- Semiconductors: Valence band, conduction band and forbidden energy gap
-:- Insulators, semiconductors and conductors - forbidden energy gap
-:- Electrons and holes in semiconductors
-:- Intrinsic semiconductor
-:- Extrinsic semiconductor: N and P -type semiconductor
-:- PN Junction diode: Forward and Reverse bias characteristics
-:- PN junction diode as Half wave and Bridge wave rectifier
-:- Avalanche and zener Breakdown mechanisms
-:- Zener diode and Zener diode as voltage regulator
-:- Light Emitting Diode (LED)
-:- Junction transistor
-:- Working of a PNP transistor
-:- Transistor circuit configurations
-:- Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration
-:- Transistor as a switch
-:- Transistor amplifier - Operating point, Working
-:- Transistor biasing - Voltage divider bias
-:- Single stage CE amplifier
-:- Multistage amplifiers
-:- Feedback in amplifiers- Principle of feedback and
-:- Transistor oscillators - Barkhausen condition for oscillation
-:- Generation of sinusoidal waves by a tuned LC circuit
-:- Essentials of LC oscillator
-:- Colpitt's oscillator
-:- Integrated circuit (IC)
-:- Digital electronics - Analog signal, Digital signal and logic levels
-:- Basic logic gates using discrete components
-:- Operational amplifier (OP - AMP)
-:- Circuit symbol and Pin-out configuration of an OP-AMP
-:- Basic OP-AMP circuits: Inverting, Non-inverting, Summing, Difference amplifier
-:- Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO)
-:- Multimeter

Communication Systems


-:- Propagation of electromagnetic waves
-:- Amplitude modulation (AM): Modulation factor, Analysis, Advantages, Limitations
-:- Frequency modulation (FM): Advantages and Disadvantages
-:- Phase modulation (PM)
-:- Radio transmission - AM, FM transmitter and AF, RF section
-:- Radio reception: simple, AM and FM receiver
-:- Television: Construction and Working of Vidicon camera tube
-:- Television: Scanning and synchronising
-:- Monochrome picture tube
-:- Monochrome TV transmission
-:- Monochrome TV receiver
-:- RADAR: Principle, Applications, Transmission and reception of radar
-:- Analog communication and digital communication
-:- Modem and Fax (or) Facsimile
-:- Wire and Cable
-:- Fiber optical communication: Advantages, Applications
-:- Satellite Communication: Merits and Demerits