The Diversity of Fishes: Biology Evolution and Ecology

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The Diversity of Fishes: Biology Evolution and Ecology

Introduction


=> The science of ichthyology
=> What is a fish?
=> The diversity of fishes
=> Superlative fishes
=> A brief history of ichthyology

Systematic procedures


=> Species
=> Taxonomy versus systematics
=> Approaches to classification
=> Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes
=> Vertebrate classes
=> Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes
=> International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
=> PhyloCode
=> Name changes - Diversity of Fishes
=> Collections - Diversity of Fishes

Skeleton skin and scales


=> Skeleton of Fishes
=> Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes
=> Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes
=> Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes
=> Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes
=> Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes
=> Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes
=> Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes

Soft anatomy


=> Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes
=> Cardiovascular system of Fishes
=> Alimentary canal of Fishes
=> Gas bladder of Fishes
=> Kidneys of Fishes
=> Gonads of Fishes
=> Nervous system of Fishes

Oxygen metabolism and energetics


=> Respiration and ventilation of Fishes
=> Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes
=> Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes
=> Air-breathing fishes
=> Gas transport of Fishes
=> Metabolic rate of Fishes
=> Swimming of Fishes
=> Buoyancy regulation of Fishes
=> Energy intake of Fishes
=> Bioenergetics models of Fishes

Sensory systems


=> Mechanoreception - Fishes
=> Lateral line system - Fishes
=> Equilibrium and balance - Fishes
=> Hearing in fishes
=> Electroreception - Fishes
=> Electroreceptors - Fishes
=> Electrical communication - Fishes
=> Electrical attack and defense - Fishes
=> Vision - Fishes
=> Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes
=> Chemoreception - Fishes
=> Magnetic reception - Fishes

Homeostasis


=> Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes
=> Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis
=> Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis
=> Heterothermic fishes
=> Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis
=> Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis
=> Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis
=> Osmoregulation in different types of fishes
=> Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis
=> pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis
=> The immune system of Fishes
=> Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis
=> Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis

Functional morphology of locomotion and feeding


=> Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes
=> Locomotory types - Fishes
=> Specialized locomotion - Fishes
=> Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes
=> Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes
=> Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes
=> Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes
=> Dentition - Fishes
=> Mouth position and function - Fishes

Early life history


=> Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes
=> Early life history:terminology - Fishes
=> Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes
=> Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes
=> Embryology - Fishes
=> Meristic variation - Fishes
=> Larvae - Fishes
=> Larval feeding and survival - Fishes
=> Larval behavior and physiology
=> Larval morphology and taxonomy
=> Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms

Juveniles adults age and growth


=> Juveniles
=> Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles
=> Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
=> Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults
=> Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes
=> Death and senescence - Adults Fishes
=> Age - Fishes
=> Growth - Fishes
=> Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes
=> Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes
=> Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony, paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes

A history of fishes


=> A history of fishes
=> Jawless fishes - A history of fishes
=> Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes
=> Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes
=> Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes
=> Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes
=> Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
=> Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
=> Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
=> Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
=> Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
=> Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
=> Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
=> Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
=> Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
=> Trends during teleostean phylogeny
=> Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes
=> Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes
=> Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes
=> A history of fishes: summary and overview

Chondrichthyes sharks skates rays and chimaeras


=> Subclass Elasmobranchii
=> Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii
=> Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii
=> Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii
=> Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii
=> Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass Elasmobranchii
=> Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii
=> Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii
=> Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii
=> Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii
=> Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali

Living representatives of primitive fishes


=> Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes
=> Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes
=> Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes
=> Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes
=> Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony fishes
=> The living coelacanths, at least for now
=> Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive bony fishes
=> Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish - Primitive bony fishes
=> Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits
=> Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes
=> Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes
=> Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes
=> Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the gars
=> Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin

Teleosts at last I bonytongues through anglerfishes


=> Teleostean phylogeny
=> Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes
=> Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes
=> Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes
=> Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes
=> Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes
=> Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
=> Neognathi
=> Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts
=> Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts
=> Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts

Teleosts at last IIspiny rayed fishes


=> Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction
=> Series Mugilomorpha
=> Series Atherinomorpha
=> Series Percomorpha:basal orders
=> Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes
=> Suborder Percoidea
=> Suborder Elassomatoidei
=> Suborder Labroidei
=> Suborder Zoarcoidei
=> Suborder Notothenioidei
=> Suborder Trachinoidei
=> Suborder Blennioidei
=> Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei
=> Suborder Gobioidei
=> Suborder Kurtoidei
=> Suborder Acanthuroidei
=> Suborder Xiphioidei
=> Suborder Scombroidei
=> Suborder Stromateoidei
=> Suborder Anabantoidei
=> Suborder Channoidei
=> Suborder Caproidei
=> Order Pleuronectiformes
=> Order Tetraodontiformes

Zoogeography


=> Marine fishes
=> Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes
=> Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
=> Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
=> Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
=> Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
=> Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
=> Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
=> Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
=> Freshwater fishes
=> Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes
=> Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes
=> Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes
=> African region Freshwater Fishes
=> Oriental region Freshwater Fishes
=> Australian region Freshwater Fishes
=> Archaic freshwater fish distributions
=> More recent freshwater fish distributions
=> Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes
=> Middle American freshwater fishes

Fish genetics


=> Fish genomics
=> Molecular ecology - Fish genetics
=> Population genetics - Fish genetics
=> Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics
=> Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics
=> Habitat preference - Fish genetics
=> Complex population structure - Fish genetics
=> Fish genetics: Phylogeography
=> Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography
=> Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography
=> Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography
=> Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography
=> Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic - Fish genetics: Phylogeography
=> Molecular evolution - Fish genetics
=> The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish?
=> The history of ray-finned fishes
=> Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes
=> Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes
=> The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi
=> Conservation genetics - Fish genetics
=> Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics

Special habitats and special adaptations


=> The deep sea
=> Physical factors affecting the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes
=> Convergence in the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes
=> The open sea
=> Adaptations to the open sea
=> Foraging
=> Life history patterns in pelagic fishes
=> Flotsam
=> Evolution and convergence - Deep sea
=> Polar regions - Diversity of Fishes
=> Antarctic fishes
=> Adaptations and constraints of Antarctic fishes
=> Arctic fishes
=> Deserts and other seasonally arid habitats - Diversity of Fishes
=> North American deserts - Diversity of Fishes
=> Strong currents and turbulent water - Diversity of Fishes
=> Caves - Diversity of Fishes
=> Adaptations to cave living - Diversity of Fishes
=> Preadaptation, evolution, and convergence in cave fishes

Fishes as predators


=> Search and detect - Fishes as predators
=> Pursuit - Fishes as predators
=> Attack and capture - Fishes as predators
=> Handling - Fishes as predators
=> Scavengers, detritivores, and herbivores - Fishes as predators
=> Optimally foraging fishes - Fishes as predators

Fishes as prey


=> Avoiding detection: Camouflage - Fishes as prey
=> Avoiding detection: Invisible fishes - Fishes as prey
=> Avoiding detection: Early detection - Fishes as prey
=> Avoiding detection: Shoaling and search - Fishes as prey
=> Evading pursuit - Fishes as prey
=> Preventing and deflecting attacks - Fishes as prey
=> Discouraging capture and handling - Fishes as prey
=> Balancing foraging against predatory threat - Fishes as prey

Fishes as social animals reproduction


=> Reproductive patterns among fishes
=> Lifetime reproductive opportunities - Reproductive patterns among fishes
=> Mating systems - Reproductive patterns among fishes
=> Gender roles in fishes - Reproductive patterns among fishes
=> Sexual selection, dimorphism, and mate choice - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning
=> Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning
=> Courtship patterns - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning
=> Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning
=> The spawning act - Fishes as social animals
=> Extent and diversity of care - Parental care of Fishes
=> The gender of care-givers - Parental care of Fishes
=> The costs of care - Parental care of Fishes
=> Alternative mating systems and tactics - Fishes as social animals

Fishes as social animals aggregation aggression and cooperation


=> Visual communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals
=> Acoustic communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals
=> Chemical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals
=> Tactile communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals
=> Electrical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals
=> Agonistic interactions of Fishes
=> Behavioral hierarchies - Agonistic interactions of Fishes
=> Territoriality - Agonistic interactions of Fishes
=> Home ranges - Agonistic interactions of Fishes
=> Aggregations Shoaling of Fishes
=> Optimal group size - Aggregations of Fishes
=> Parasitism - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses
=> Mutualism and commensalism - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses
=> Interspecific shoaling - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses

Cycles of activity and behavior


=> Light-induced activity patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns
=> Vertical migrations - Fishes: Diel patterns
=> Circadian rhythms - Fishes: Diel patterns
=> Tidal patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns
=> Semilunar and lunar patterns - Diversity of Fishes
=> Activity and distribution - Seasonal patterns of Fishes
=> Reproductive seasonality - Seasonal patterns of Fishes
=> Seasonal reproduction: proximate and ultimate factors - Seasonal patterns of Fishes
=> Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes
=> Diadromy - Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes
=> Mechanisms of migration - Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes
=> Representative life histories of migratory fishes

Individuals populations and assemblages


=> Life histories and reproductive ecology of Fishes
=> Population dynamics and regulation - Diversity of Fishes
=> Production of Fishes
=> Genetic structure of populations - Diversity of Fishes
=> Hybridization - Diversity of Fishes
=> Assemblages - Diversity of Fishes
=> Niches and guilds: the ecological role of a species - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages
=> Habitat use and choice - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages
=> Habitat choice and spatial structure: zonation - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages
=> Competition - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages
=> Predation - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages
=> Synthesis: what determines assemblage structure among coral reef fishes?

Communities ecosystems and the functional role of fishes


=> Community-level interactions between fishes and other taxonomic groups
=> The effects of fishes on plants
=> Effects of fishes on zooplankton
=> Effects of fishes on benthic invertebrates
=> Turnover rates and the inverted food pyramid - Effects of fishes
=> Fishes in the ecosystem
=> Indirect effects and trophic cascades - Fishes in the ecosystem
=> Nutrient cycling and transport by fishes
=> Fishes in food webs
=> Fishes as producers and transporters of sand, coral, and rocks
=> Influence of physical factors and disturbance - Diversity of Fishes

Conservation and the future of fishes


=> Extinction and biodiversity loss
=> Threatened and endangered fishes - Extinction and biodiversity loss
=> General causes of biodiversity decline
=> Habitat loss and modification - General causes of fish biodiversity decline
=> Species introductions - General causes of fish biodiversity decline
=> Pollution - General causes of fish biodiversity decline
=> Commercial exploitation - General causes of fish biodiversity decline
=> Global climate change - General causes of fish biodiversity decline
=> What can be done against fish Biodiversity loss?



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