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The Diversity of Fishes: Biology Evolution and Ecology -

The Diversity of Fishes: Biology Evolution and Ecology

Introduction


-:- The science of ichthyology
-:- What is a fish?
-:- The diversity of fishes
-:- Superlative fishes
-:- A brief history of ichthyology

Systematic procedures


-:- Species
-:- Taxonomy versus systematics
-:- Approaches to classification
-:- Taxonomic characters - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Vertebrate classes
-:- Units of classification - The Diversity of Fishes
-:- International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
-:- PhyloCode
-:- Name changes - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Collections - Diversity of Fishes

Skeleton skin and scales


-:- Skeleton of Fishes
-:- Neurocranium - Skeleton of Fishes
-:- Branchiocranium - Skeleton of Fishes
-:- Postcranial skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes
-:- Appendicular skeleton - Skeleton of Fishes
-:- Epidermis - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes
-:- Scales - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes
-:- Scale morphology in taxonomy and life history - Integumentary skeleton of Fishes

Soft anatomy


-:- Muscles - Anatomy of Fishes
-:- Cardiovascular system of Fishes
-:- Alimentary canal of Fishes
-:- Gas bladder of Fishes
-:- Kidneys of Fishes
-:- Gonads of Fishes
-:- Nervous system of Fishes

Oxygen metabolism and energetics


-:- Respiration and ventilation of Fishes
-:- Water as arespiratory environment - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes
-:- Aquatic breathing - Respiration and ventilation of Fishes
-:- Air-breathing fishes
-:- Gas transport of Fishes
-:- Metabolic rate of Fishes
-:- Swimming of Fishes
-:- Buoyancy regulation of Fishes
-:- Energy intake of Fishes
-:- Bioenergetics models of Fishes

Sensory systems


-:- Mechanoreception - Fishes
-:- Lateral line system - Fishes
-:- Equilibrium and balance - Fishes
-:- Hearing in fishes
-:- Electroreception - Fishes
-:- Electroreceptors - Fishes
-:- Electrical communication - Fishes
-:- Electrical attack and defense - Fishes
-:- Vision - Fishes
-:- Visual adaptations for special habitats - Fishes
-:- Chemoreception - Fishes
-:- Magnetic reception - Fishes

Homeostasis


-:- Coordination and control of regulation - Fishes
-:- Temperature relationships - Fishes: Homeostasis
-:- Coping with temperature fluctuation - Fishes: Homeostasis
-:- Heterothermic fishes
-:- Coping with temperature extremes - Fishes: Homeostasis
-:- Thermal preference - Fishes: Homeostasis
-:- Osmoregulation, excretion, ion and pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis
-:- Osmoregulation in different types of fishes
-:- Control of osmoregulation and excretion - Fishes: Homeostasis
-:- pH balance - Fishes: Homeostasis
-:- The immune system of Fishes
-:- Stress - Fishes: Homeostasis
-:- Indicators of stress - Fishes: Homeostasis

Functional morphology of locomotion and feeding


-:- Locomotion: movement and shape - Fishes
-:- Locomotory types - Fishes
-:- Specialized locomotion - Fishes
-:- Swimming in sharks: the alternative approach - Fishes
-:- Feeding: biting, sucking,chewing, and swallowing - Fishes
-:- Jaw protrusion: the great leap forward - Fishes
-:- Pharyngeal jaws - Fishes
-:- Dentition - Fishes
-:- Mouth position and function - Fishes

Early life history


-:- Complex life cycles and indeterminate growth - Fishes
-:- Early life history:terminology - Fishes
-:- Gametogenesis - Eggs and sperm of Fishes
-:- Fertilization - Eggs and sperm of Fishes
-:- Embryology - Fishes
-:- Meristic variation - Fishes
-:- Larvae - Fishes
-:- Larval feeding and survival - Fishes
-:- Larval behavior and physiology
-:- Larval morphology and taxonomy
-:- Getting from here to there: larval transport mechanisms

Juveniles adults age and growth


-:- Juveniles
-:- Transitions and transitional stages - Juveniles
-:- Complex transitions: smoltificationin salmon, metamorphosis in flatfish
-:- Determination, differentiation, and maturation - Adults Adults
-:- Maturation and longevity - Adults Fishes
-:- Death and senescence - Adults Fishes
-:- Age - Fishes
-:- Growth - Fishes
-:- Body size, scaling, and allometry - Fishes
-:- Ontogenetic differences within species - Fishes
-:- Evolution via adjustments in development: heterochrony, paedomorphosis, and neoteny - Fishes

A history of fishes


-:- A history of fishes
-:- Jawless fishes - A history of fishes
-:- Subphylum Craniata, Infraphylum Vertebrata - A history of fishes
-:- Later evolution of primitive agnathous fishes
-:- Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes
-:- Class Placodermi - Gnathostomes: early jawed fishes
-:- Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
-:- Class Acanthodii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
-:- Class Sarcopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes I: teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
-:- Tetrapodamorphs: tetrapod ancestors - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
-:- Class Actinopterygii - Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
-:- Subclass Cladistia - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
-:- Subclass Chondrostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
-:- Subclass Neopterygii - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
-:- Division Teleostei - Class Actinopterygii, Advanced jawed fishes : teleostomes (Osteichthyes)
-:- Trends during teleostean phylogeny
-:- Advanced jawed fishes II: Chondrichthyes
-:- Subclass Elasmobranchii - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes
-:- Subclass Holocephali - Advanced jawed fishes: Chondrichthyes
-:- A history of fishes: summary and overview

Chondrichthyes sharks skates rays and chimaeras


-:- Subclass Elasmobranchii
-:- Modern neoselachian diversity - Subclass Elasmobranchii
-:- Body size - Subclass Elasmobranchii
-:- Habitats - Subclass Elasmobranchii
-:- Movement and home ranges - Subclass Elasmobranchii
-:- Metabolism and growth rate: life in the slow lane - Subclass Elasmobranchii
-:- Feeding habits - Subclass Elasmobranchii
-:- Sensory physiology - Subclass Elasmobranchii
-:- Reproduction and development - Subclass Elasmobranchii
-:- Shark conservation - Subclass Elasmobranchii
-:- Chimaeras - Subclass Holocephali

Living representatives of primitive fishes


-:- Amphioxiforms - Jawless fishes
-:- Hagfishes and lampreys: evolutionary relationships - Jawless fishes
-:- Myxiniforms - Jawless fishes
-:- Petromyzontiforms - Jawless fishes
-:- Subclass Coelacanthimorpha: the living coelacanths - Primitive bony fishes
-:- The living coelacanths, at least for now
-:- Subclass Dipnoi, Order Ceratodontiformes: the lungfishes - Primitive bony fishes
-:- Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Cladistia: bichirs and Reedfish - Primitive bony fishes
-:- Cladistian autapomorphic and synapomorphic traits
-:- Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes
-:- Acipenseridae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes
-:- Polyodontidae - Class Actinopterygii, Subclass Chondrostei, Order Acipenseriformes: sturgeons and paddlefishes
-:- Subclass Neopterygii, Order Lepisosteiformes (or Semionotiformes): the gars
-:- Order Amiiformes: the Bowfin

Teleosts at last I bonytongues through anglerfishes


-:- Teleostean phylogeny
-:- Subdivision Osteoglossomorpha - teleostean fishes
-:- Subdivision Elopomorpha - teleostean fishes
-:- Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder Clupeomorpha - teleostean fishes
-:- Subdivision Otocephala (= Ostarioclupeomorpha), Superorder Ostariophysi - teleostean fishes
-:- Subdivision Euteleostei - teleostean fishes
-:- Subdivision Euteostei, Superorder Protacanthopterygii - teleostean fishes
-:- Neognathi
-:- Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts
-:- Superorder Lampriomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts
-:- Superorder Polymixiomorpha - Acanthomorpha: thespiny teleosts

Teleosts at last IIspiny rayed fishes


-:- Superorder Acanthopterygii: introduction
-:- Series Mugilomorpha
-:- Series Atherinomorpha
-:- Series Percomorpha:basal orders
-:- Series Percomorpha, Order Perciformes: the perchlike fishes
-:- Suborder Percoidea
-:- Suborder Elassomatoidei
-:- Suborder Labroidei
-:- Suborder Zoarcoidei
-:- Suborder Notothenioidei
-:- Suborder Trachinoidei
-:- Suborder Blennioidei
-:- Suborders Icosteoidei,Gobiesocoidei, and Callionymoidei
-:- Suborder Gobioidei
-:- Suborder Kurtoidei
-:- Suborder Acanthuroidei
-:- Suborder Xiphioidei
-:- Suborder Scombroidei
-:- Suborder Stromateoidei
-:- Suborder Anabantoidei
-:- Suborder Channoidei
-:- Suborder Caproidei
-:- Order Pleuronectiformes
-:- Order Tetraodontiformes

Zoogeography


-:- Marine fishes
-:- Major ecological divisions - Marine fishes
-:- Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
-:- Indo-West Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
-:- Western Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
-:- Eastern Pacific region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
-:- Eastern Atlantic region - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
-:- Mediterranean Sea - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
-:- Arctic and Antarctic fishes - Marine zoogeographic regions fishes
-:- Freshwater fishes
-:- Nearctic region Freshwater Fishes
-:- Neotropical region Freshwater Fishes
-:- Palearctic region Freshwater Fishes
-:- African region Freshwater Fishes
-:- Oriental region Freshwater Fishes
-:- Australian region Freshwater Fishes
-:- Archaic freshwater fish distributions
-:- More recent freshwater fish distributions
-:- Similarities between South American and African freshwater fishes
-:- Middle American freshwater fishes

Fish genetics


-:- Fish genomics
-:- Molecular ecology - Fish genetics
-:- Population genetics - Fish genetics
-:- Dispersal and population structure - Fish genetics
-:- Pelagic larval duration and population structure - Fish genetics
-:- Habitat preference - Fish genetics
-:- Complex population structure - Fish genetics
-:- Fish genetics: Phylogeography
-:- Dispersal and vicariance revisited - Fish genetics: Phylogeography
-:- Freshwater fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography
-:- Anadromous fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography
-:- Marine fishes - Fish genetics: Phylogeography
-:- Transarctic interchange between the North Pacific and North Atlantic - Fish genetics: Phylogeography
-:- Molecular evolution - Fish genetics
-:- The deepest vertebrate radiations: are you a fish?
-:- The history of ray-finned fishes
-:- Mapping an evolutionary innovation in parrotfishes
-:- Cryptic evolutionary diversity: the case of the bonefishes
-:- The cichlid radiation of Lake Malawi
-:- Conservation genetics - Fish genetics
-:- Molecular identification in the marketplace - Fish genetics

Special habitats and special adaptations


-:- The deep sea
-:- Physical factors affecting the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Convergence in the deep sea - Diversity of Fishes
-:- The open sea
-:- Adaptations to the open sea
-:- Foraging
-:- Life history patterns in pelagic fishes
-:- Flotsam
-:- Evolution and convergence - Deep sea
-:- Polar regions - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Antarctic fishes
-:- Adaptations and constraints of Antarctic fishes
-:- Arctic fishes
-:- Deserts and other seasonally arid habitats - Diversity of Fishes
-:- North American deserts - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Strong currents and turbulent water - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Caves - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Adaptations to cave living - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Preadaptation, evolution, and convergence in cave fishes

Fishes as predators


-:- Search and detect - Fishes as predators
-:- Pursuit - Fishes as predators
-:- Attack and capture - Fishes as predators
-:- Handling - Fishes as predators
-:- Scavengers, detritivores, and herbivores - Fishes as predators
-:- Optimally foraging fishes - Fishes as predators

Fishes as prey


-:- Avoiding detection: Camouflage - Fishes as prey
-:- Avoiding detection: Invisible fishes - Fishes as prey
-:- Avoiding detection: Early detection - Fishes as prey
-:- Avoiding detection: Shoaling and search - Fishes as prey
-:- Evading pursuit - Fishes as prey
-:- Preventing and deflecting attacks - Fishes as prey
-:- Discouraging capture and handling - Fishes as prey
-:- Balancing foraging against predatory threat - Fishes as prey

Fishes as social animals reproduction


-:- Reproductive patterns among fishes
-:- Lifetime reproductive opportunities - Reproductive patterns among fishes
-:- Mating systems - Reproductive patterns among fishes
-:- Gender roles in fishes - Reproductive patterns among fishes
-:- Sexual selection, dimorphism, and mate choice - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning
-:- Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning
-:- Courtship patterns - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning
-:- Spawning site selection and preparation - Fishes as social animals: Courtship and spawning
-:- The spawning act - Fishes as social animals
-:- Extent and diversity of care - Parental care of Fishes
-:- The gender of care-givers - Parental care of Fishes
-:- The costs of care - Parental care of Fishes
-:- Alternative mating systems and tactics - Fishes as social animals

Fishes as social animals aggregation aggression and cooperation


-:- Visual communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals
-:- Acoustic communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals
-:- Chemical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals
-:- Tactile communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals
-:- Electrical communication of Fishes - Fishes as social animals
-:- Agonistic interactions of Fishes
-:- Behavioral hierarchies - Agonistic interactions of Fishes
-:- Territoriality - Agonistic interactions of Fishes
-:- Home ranges - Agonistic interactions of Fishes
-:- Aggregations Shoaling of Fishes
-:- Optimal group size - Aggregations of Fishes
-:- Parasitism - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses
-:- Mutualism and commensalism - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses
-:- Interspecific shoaling - Interspecific relations of Fishes: symbioses

Cycles of activity and behavior


-:- Light-induced activity patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns
-:- Vertical migrations - Fishes: Diel patterns
-:- Circadian rhythms - Fishes: Diel patterns
-:- Tidal patterns - Fishes: Diel patterns
-:- Semilunar and lunar patterns - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Activity and distribution - Seasonal patterns of Fishes
-:- Reproductive seasonality - Seasonal patterns of Fishes
-:- Seasonal reproduction: proximate and ultimate factors - Seasonal patterns of Fishes
-:- Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes
-:- Diadromy - Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes
-:- Mechanisms of migration - Annual and supra-annual patterns: migrations of Fishes
-:- Representative life histories of migratory fishes

Individuals populations and assemblages


-:- Life histories and reproductive ecology of Fishes
-:- Population dynamics and regulation - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Production of Fishes
-:- Genetic structure of populations - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Hybridization - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Assemblages - Diversity of Fishes
-:- Niches and guilds: the ecological role of a species - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages
-:- Habitat use and choice - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages
-:- Habitat choice and spatial structure: zonation - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages
-:- Competition - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages
-:- Predation - Diversity of Fishes: Assemblages
-:- Synthesis: what determines assemblage structure among coral reef fishes?

Communities ecosystems and the functional role of fishes


-:- Community-level interactions between fishes and other taxonomic groups
-:- The effects of fishes on plants
-:- Effects of fishes on zooplankton
-:- Effects of fishes on benthic invertebrates
-:- Turnover rates and the inverted food pyramid - Effects of fishes
-:- Fishes in the ecosystem
-:- Indirect effects and trophic cascades - Fishes in the ecosystem
-:- Nutrient cycling and transport by fishes
-:- Fishes in food webs
-:- Fishes as producers and transporters of sand, coral, and rocks
-:- Influence of physical factors and disturbance - Diversity of Fishes

Conservation and the future of fishes


-:- Extinction and biodiversity loss
-:- Threatened and endangered fishes - Extinction and biodiversity loss
-:- General causes of biodiversity decline
-:- Habitat loss and modification - General causes of fish biodiversity decline
-:- Species introductions - General causes of fish biodiversity decline
-:- Pollution - General causes of fish biodiversity decline
-:- Commercial exploitation - General causes of fish biodiversity decline
-:- Global climate change - General causes of fish biodiversity decline
-:- What can be done against fish Biodiversity loss?