Modern Medical Toxicology

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Modern Medical Toxicology

General Principles

Introduction


=> Epidemiology of Poisoning
=> Historical Overview - Toxicology
=> Poison Control Centres
=> Mortality from Poisoning
=> Poisoning Severity Score

Diagnosis of Poisoning


=> Diagnosis of Poisoning

General Management of Poisoning


=> General Management of Poisoning
=> Stabilisation: Assessment - General Management of Poisoning
=> Stabilisation: Management - General Management of Poisoning
=> Evaluation - General Management of Poisoning
=> Decontamination - General Management of Poisoning
=> Elimination - General Management of Poisoning
=> Antidote Administration - General Management of Poisoning
=> Nursing and Psychiatric Care - General Management of Poisoning

Medicolegal Aspects of Poisoning


=> Medicolegal Duties of a Doctor in Suspected/Actual Poisoning
=> Indian Statutes on Drugs/Poisons
=> Toxicology and the Criminal Law
=> Medicolegal Problems Involving Consent
=> Toxicology and the Workmen’s Compensation Act
=> Postmortem Examination in a Case of Poisoning
=> Chemical Analysis - Medicolegal Aspects of Poisoning
=> Histopathological Examination

Corrosive or Caustic Poisons

Mineral Acids Inorganic Acids


=> Caustics - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Acids - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Sulfuric Acid - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Nitric Acid - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Hydrochloric Acid - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Hydrofluoric Acid - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Phosphoric Acid - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Boric Acid - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Chromic Acid - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons

Organic Acids


=> Acetic Acid - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Formic Acid - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Carbolic Acid - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Oxalic Acid - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons

Alkalis and Other Caustics


=> Alkalis - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Potassium Permanganate - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Iodine - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Hydrogen Peroxide - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons
=> Cetrimide - Corrosive(Caustic) Poisons

Chemical Poisons

Non Metallic Chemical Poisons


=> Phosphorus - Chemical Poisons
=> Phosphine - Chemical Poisons
=> Aluminium Phosphide - Chemical Poisons
=> Zinc Phosphide - Chemical Poisons
=> Chlorine - Chemical Poisons
=> Bromine - Chemical Poisons
=> Fluorine - Chemical Poisons

Heavy Metals


=> Arsenic - Chemical Poisons
=> Lead - Chemical Poisons
=> Lead - Chemical Poisons: Diagnosis
=> Lead - Chemical Poisons: Treatment
=> Lead - Chemical Poisons: Forensic Issues
=> Mercury - Chemical Poisons
=> Iron - Chemical Poisons
=> Copper - Chemical Poisons
=> Antimony - Chemical Poisons
=> Barium - Chemical Poisons
=> Cadmium - Chemical Poisons
=> Cobalt - Chemical Poisons
=> Lithium - Chemical Poisons
=> Magnesium - Chemical Poisons
=> Manganese - Chemical Poisons
=> Potassium (Kalium) - Chemical Poisons
=> Thallium - Chemical Poisons
=> Metal Fume Fever - Chemical Poisons

Organic Poisons Toxins

Irritant Plants


=> Irritant Plants
=> Classification of Irritant Plants
=> Oropharyngeal Irritant Plants
=> Dumbcane - Oropharyngeal Irritant Plants
=> Philodendron - Oropharyngeal Irritant Plants
=> Castor - Gastric Irritant Plants
=> Colocynth(Citrullus colocynthis) - Gastric Irritant Plants
=> Croton(Croton tiglium) - Gastric Irritant Plants
=> Glory Lily(Gloriosa superba) - Gastric Irritant Plants
=> Marking Nut(Semecarpus anacardium) - Gastric Irritant Plants
=> Mayapple (May Apple) - Gastric Irritant Plants
=> Red Pepper - Gastric Irritant Plants
=> Rosary Pea - Gastric Irritant Plants
=> Dermal Irritant Plants

Plants of Special Importance


=> Neem - Hepatotoxic Plants
=> Autumn Crocus(Colchicum autumnale)
=> Oduvan - Organic Poisons (Toxins)
=> Eucalyptus - Organic Poisons (Toxins)
=> Physic Nut - Organic Poisons (Toxins)

Venomous Bites and Stings


=> Snakes - Organic Poisons (Toxins)
=> Classification of Snakes
=> Identification of Venomous Snakes
=> Common Indian Venomous Snakes
=> Common Cobra - Organic Poisons (Toxins)
=> Common Krait - Poisons (Toxins)
=> Saw-scaled Viper - Poisons (Toxins)
=> Russell’s Viper - Poisons (Toxins)
=> King Cobra - Poisons (Toxins)
=> Banded Krait - Poisons (Toxins)
=> Pit Vipers - Poisons (Toxins)
=> Coral Snakes - Poisons (Toxins)
=> Sea Snakes - Poisons (Toxins)
=> Snake Venom
=> Snakebite: Epidemiology
=> Snakebite: Clinical Features
=> Diagnosis of Snakebite
=> Treatment of Snakebite
=> Prevention of Snakebite
=> Forensic Issues in Snakebite
=> Order Hymenoptera - Venomous Insects
=> Order Scorpionida - Venomous Arachnids
=> Order Aranea - Venomous Arachnids
=> Brown Recluse - Venomous Arachnids
=> Black Widow - Venomous Arachnids
=> Wolf Spider - Venomous Arachnids
=> Tarantula - Venomous Arachnids
=> Ticks and Mites - Venomous Creature
=> Centipedes - Venomous Creature
=> Millipedes - Venomous Creature
=> Marine Venomous Creatures
=> General Treatment Measures for Cnidarian Stings

Neurotoxic Poisons

Somniferous Drugs


=> Somniferous Drugs - Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Opium - Somniferous Drugs(Narcotics) Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Opium: Diagnosis, Treatment, Autopsy Features, Forensic Issues - Somniferous Drugs(Narcotics) Neurotoxic Poisons

Inebriants


=> Alcohols - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Ethanol - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Ethanol: Clinical Features - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Ethanol: Diagnosis - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Ethanol: Autopsy Features, Forensic Issues - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Ethanol and cardiac health
=> Methanol - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Isopropanol - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Ethylene Glycol - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Barbiturates - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Benzodiazepines - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Chloral Hydrate - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Paraldehyde - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Methaqualone - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Buspirone - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Zolpidem - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Zopiclone - Inebriant Neurotoxic Poisons

Deliriants


=> Datura - Deliriant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Cannabis - Deliriant Neurotoxic Poisons

Stimulants


=> Amphetamines - Stimulant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Designer Amphetamines - Stimulant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Cocaine - Stimulant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Cocaine: Clinical Features - Stimulant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Cocaine: Diagnosis, Treatment - Stimulant Neurotoxic Poisons
=> Cocaine: Autopsy Features, Mediocosocial and Forensic Issues - Stimulant Neurotoxic Poisons

Anticonvulsants and Antiparkinsonian Drugs


=> Classification of Anticonvulsant (Anti-Epileptic) Drug
=> Phenytoin - Anticonvulsant (Anti-Epileptic) Drug
=> Primidone - Anticonvulsant (Anti-Epileptic) Drug
=> Carbamazepine - Anticonvulsant (Anti-Epileptic) Drug
=> Valproic Acid - Anticonvulsant (Anti-Epileptic) Drug
=> Gabapentin - Anticonvulsant (Anti-Epileptic) Drug
=> Topiramate - Anticonvulsant (Anti-Epileptic) Drug
=> Zonisamide - Anticonvulsant (Anti-Epileptic) Drug
=> Antiparkinsonian Drugs
=> Levodopa - Antiparkinsonian Drug
=> Bromocriptine - Antiparkinsonian Drug
=> Pergolide - Antiparkinsonian Drug
=> Trihexiphenidyl - Antiparkinsonian Drug
=> Benztropine - Antiparkinsonian Drug

Anaesthetics and Muscle Relaxants


=> Anaesthetics Classification
=> Nitrous Oxide - Inhalational Anaesthetics
=> Halothane - Inhalational Anaesthetics
=> Other Inhalational Anaesthetics
=> Etomidate - Intravenous Anaesthetics
=> Ketamine - Intravenous Anaesthetics
=> Fentanyl and Droperidol - Intravenous Anaesthetics
=> Propofol - Intravenous Anaesthetics
=> Cocaine and Other Local Anaesthetics
=> Muscle Relaxants
=> Baclofen - Central Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
=> Carisoprodol - Central Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
=> Other Central Muscle Relaxants
=> Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
=> Orphenadrine - Muscle Relaxants
=> Dantrolene - Muscle Relaxants
=> Cyclobenzaprine - Muscle Relaxants

Drugs Used in Psychiatry


=> Antipsychotics - Drugs Used in Psychiatry
=> Classical Neuroleptics
=> Dibenzodiazepines - Atypical Neuroleptics
=> Benzisoxazoles - Atypical Neuroleptics
=> Antidepressants
=> Cyclic Antidepressants
=> Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) - Antidepressants
=> Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) - Antidepressants
=> Atypical Antidepressants
=> Lithium - Anti-Manic Drugs
=> Anti-Migraine Drugs
=> Ergot Alkaloids - Anti-Migraine Drugs
=> Sumatriptan - Anti-Migraine Drugs
=> Tacrine - Drugs Used in Alzheimer’s Disease

Hallucinogens Psychedelic Drugs


=> Hallucinogens (Psychedelic Drugs)
=> Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) - Hallucinogen(Psychedelic Drug)
=> Phencyclidine - Hallucinogen(Psychedelic Drug)
=> Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) - Hallucinogen(Psychedelic Drug)
=> Mescaline - Hallucinogen(Psychedelic Drug)
=> Inhalants (Glue Sniffing; Volatile Substance Abuse)

Spinal and Peripheral Neurotoxic Agents


=> Strychnine - Spinal and Peripheral Neurotoxic Agents
=> Poison Hemlock - Spinal and Peripheral Neurotoxic Agents
=> Water Hemlock(Cicuta maculata.) - Spinal and Peripheral Neurotoxic Agents

Cardiovascular Poisons

Diurets Antihypertensives and Antiarrhythmics


=> Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors - Diuret Cardiovascular Poison
=> Osmotic Diuretics - Cardiovascular Poison
=> Loop Diuretics - Cardiovascular Poison
=> Thiazide Diuretics - Cardiovascular Poison
=> Potassium Sparing Diuretics - Cardiovascular Poison
=> Antihypertensives - Cardiovascular Poison
=> Methyldopa - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Clonidine - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Ganglionic Blocking Agents - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Adrenergic Neuron Blocking Agents - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Reserpine - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Beta Adrenergic Antagonists (Beta Blockers) - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Alpha Adrenergic Antagonists (Alpha Blockers) - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Vasodilators - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Hydralazine - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Minoxidil - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Sodium Nitroprusside - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Calcium Channel Blockers - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE Inhibitors) - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists - Sympatholytic Drug Cardiovascular Poison
=> Antiarrhythmics - Cardiovascular Poison
=> Disopyramide - Antiarrhythmic Cardiovascular Poison
=> Procainamide - Antiarrhythmic Cardiovascular Poison
=> Lignocaine (Lidocaine) - Antiarrhythmic Cardiovascular Poison
=> Mexiletine and Tocainide - Antiarrhythmic Cardiovascular Poison
=> Propafenone (Fenopraine) - Antiarrhythmic Cardiovascular Poison
=> Amiodarone - Antiarrhythmic Cardiovascular Poison
=> Adenosine - Antiarrhythmic Cardiovascular Poison

Cardiac Drugs and Lipid Lowering Agents


=> Drugs Used in Heart Failure
=> Cardiac Glycosides - Cardiovascular Poisons
=> Dopamine - Beta Adrenergic Receptor and Dopaminergic Receptor Agonists
=> Dobutamine - Beta Adrenergic Receptor and Dopaminergic Receptor Agonists
=> Amrinone (Inamrinone) - Cardiovascular Poisons
=> Dipyridamole - Cardiovascular Poisons
=> Anti-anginal Drugs - Cardiovascular Poisons
=> Organic Nitrates - Cardiovascular Poisons
=> HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors - Cardiovascular Poisons
=> Bile Acid Binding Resins
=> Probucol - Cardiovascular Poisons
=> Fibric Acid Derivatives - Cardiovascular Poisons

Anticoagulants and Related Drugs


=> Anticoagulants
=> Heparins and Low Molecular Weight Heparins - Cardiovascular Poison
=> Oral Anticoagulants - Cardiovascular Poison
=> Aprotinin - Antifibrinolytic Cardiovascular Poison
=> Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid - Antifibrinolytic Cardiovascular Poison
=> Hirudin - Antifibrinolytic Cardiovascular Poison
=> Thrombolytics - Antifibrinolytic Cardiovascular Poison
=> Antiplatelet Drugs - Antifibrinolytic Cardiovascular Poison

Cardiotoxic Plants


=> Cardiotoxic Plants
=> Aconite - Cardiotoxic Plant
=> Common Oleander - Cardiotoxic Plant
=> Yellow Oleander - Cardiotoxic Plant
=> Suicide Tree - Cardiotoxic Plant

Asphyxiant Poisons

Toxic Gases


=> Toxic Gases
=> Carbon Dioxide - Simple Asphyxiant Poisons
=> Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Gases - Simple Asphyxiant Poison
=> Ammonia - Respiratory Irritants Asphyxiant Poison
=> Formaldehyde - Respiratory Irritants Asphyxiant Poison
=> Hydrogen Sulfide - Respiratory Irritants Asphyxiant Poison
=> Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) - Respiratory Irritants Asphyxiant Poison
=> Phosgene - Respiratory Irritants Asphyxiant Poison
=> Carbon Monoxide - Systemic Asphyxiant Poison
=> Cyanide - Systemic Asphyxiant Poison
=> Smoke - Systemic Asphyxiant Poison

Hydrocarbons and Pesticides

Hydrocarbon


=> Hydrocarbon
=> Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
=> Benzene - Aromatic Hydrocarbons
=> Naphthalene - Aromatic Hydrocarbons
=> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
=> Halogenated Hydrocarbons

Pesticides


=> Pesticides
=> Organophosphates (Organophosphorus Compounds) - Insecticides
=> Carbamates - Insecticide
=> Organochlorines - Insecticide
=> Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids - Insecticide
=> Rodenticides
=> Paraquat and Diquat - Herbicides (Weedicides)
=> Chlorophenoxy Compounds - Herbicides (Weedicides)
=> Glyphosate - Herbicides (Weedicides)
=> Thiocarbamates - Fungicides
=> Ethylene dibromide - Nematicides
=> Acaricides
=> Metaldehyde - Molluscicides
=> Forensic Issues (All Pesticides)

Miscellaneous Drugs and Poisons

Analgesics and Antihistamines


=> Analgesics and Antihistamines
=> Salicylates - Analgesic-Antipyretics
=> Paracetamol - Analgesic-Antipyretics
=> Paracetamol: Diagnosis, Treatment on Poisons - Analgesic-Antipyretics
=> Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
=> Pyrazolones - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug(NSAID)
=> Propionic Acids - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug(NSAID)
=> Fenamic Acids - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug(NSAID)
=> Heterocyclic Acetic Acids - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug(NSAID)
=> Aryl Acetic Acids - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug(NSAID)
=> Oxicams - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug(NSAID)
=> Nimesulide - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug(NSAID)
=> Cox-2 Inhibitors - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug(NSAID)
=> Antihistamines
=> H1 Receptor Antagonists (Classical Antihistamines)
=> H2 Receptor Antagonists
=> 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) Antagonists

Anti Infectives


=> Antimicrobial Agents
=> Antiprotozoal Agents
=> Antibacterials - Antimicrobials
=> Quinolones - Antimicrobials
=> Penicillins - Antimicrobials
=> Cephalosporines - Antimicrobials
=> Aminoglycosides - Antimicrobials
=> Tetracyclines - Antimicrobials
=> Chloramphenicol - Antimicrobials
=> Macrolides - Antimicrobials
=> Anti-tubercular Drugs - Antimicrobials
=> Antileprotic Drugs - Antimicrobials
=> Other Antibacterial Drugs
=> Antiherpesvirus Agents
=> Antiretroviral Agents
=> Other Antiviral Agents
=> Amphotericin B - Antifungals
=> Flucytosine - Antifungal
=> Imidazoles - Antifungal
=> Griseofulvin - Antifungal
=> Antimalarials - Antiprotozoal Agent
=> Chloroguanide (Proguanil) - Antifungal
=> Primaquine - Antifungal
=> Quinine and Quinidine - Antifungal
=> Chloroquine and Amodiaquine - Antifungal
=> Mefloquine, Halofantrine, Endoperoxidases, Pyrimethamine, Mepacrine - Antimalarial Drugs
=> Antiamoebics - Anti-Infectives
=> Antihelminthics (Anthelmintics)
=> Autopsy Features (Anti-infective Overdose Deaths)
=> Forensic Issues (Anti-infectives)

Gastrointestinal and Endocrinal Drugs


=> Antacids and Anti-ulcer Drugs
=> Laxatives - Gastrointestinal Drugs
=> Antidiarrhoeals
=> Antiemetics - Antiemetics and Prokinetic Drug
=> Prokinetic Drugs - Antiemetics and Prokinetic Drug
=> Bile Acids and Pancreatic Enzymes - Antiemetics and Prokinetic Drug
=> Anterior Pituitary Hormones - Endocrinal Drug
=> Thyroid and Antithyroid Drugs - Endocrinal Drug
=> Antithyroid Drugs - Endocrinal Drug
=> Oestrogens - Endocrinal Drug
=> Anti-oestrogens
=> Progestins - Endocrinal Drug
=> Anti-progestins
=> Androgens (Anabolic Steroids)
=> Anti-androgens
=> Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Corticosteroids - Endocrinal Drug
=> Insulin
=> Oral Hypoglycaemics
=> Sulfonylureas - Oral Hypoglycaemics
=> Biguanides - Oral Hypoglycaemics
=> Other Hypoglycaemics
=> Anti-Asthmatic Drugs
=> Corticosteroids - Anti-inflammatory Drugs
=> Catecholamines
=> Immunomodulators
=> Immunostimulants
=> Antineoplastic Agents
=> Antimetabolites
=> Drugs Acting on the Uterus
=> Radiocontrast Agents
=> Sildenafil - Drugs Used in the Treatment of Impotence

Food Poisons

Food Poisoning


=> Causes and Diagnosis of Food Poisoning
=> General Treatment Measures of Food Poisoning
=> Prevention of Food Poisoning
=> Bacillus cereus - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Staphylococcus aureus - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Salmonella - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Shigella - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Vibrio - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Escherichia coli - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Campylobacter - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Yersinia enterocolitica - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Listeria monocytogenes - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Clostridium Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Clostridium perfringens - Clostridium Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Clostridium botulinum - Clostridium Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Clinical Features - Clostridium Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Diagnosis - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Treatment - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Prevention of Botulism - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Forensic Issues - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Viruses - Food Poisoning
=> Protozoa - Microbial Food Poisoning
=> Parasites - Food Poisoning
=> Fungi: Mushrooms - Food Poisoning
=> Fungi: Aflatoxins - Food Poisoning
=> Fungi: Trichothecenes - Food Poisoning
=> Cyanogenic Plants - Food Poisoning
=> Sweet Pea - Food Poisoning
=> Prickly Poppy - Food Poisoning
=> Fish - Food Poisoning
=> Scombroid Poisoning (Histamine Fish Poisoning)
=> Ciguatera Fish Poisoning
=> Tetrodotoxic Poisoning
=> Shellfish Poisoning
=> Chemicals: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) - Food Poisoning

Substance Abuse

Substances of Dependence and Abuse


=> Substances of Dependence and Abuse
=> Classification - Substances of Dependence and Abuse
=> Tobacco - Substances of Dependence and Abuse
=> Cocaine - Substances of Dependence and Abuse
=> Cocaine: Diagnosis, Treatment - Substances of Dependence and Abuse
=> Cannabis - Substances of Dependence and Abuse
=> Amphetamines - Substances of Dependence and Abuse
=> Designer Drugs - Substances of Dependence and Abuse
=> Hallucinogens (Psychedelics, Psychotomimetics) - Substances of Dependence and Abuse
=> Inhalants (“Glue Sniffing”,Volatile Substance Abuse, Inhalant-related Disorders)

Analytical Toxicology

Biochemical and Haematological Tests


=> Analytical Toxicology: Biochemical and Haematological Tests
=> Biochemical Tests - Analytical Toxicology
=> Haematological Tests - Analytical Toxicology

Analytical Instrumentation


=> Analytical Methods Used In Toxicology
=> Qualitative Tests - Analytical Toxicology Instrumentation
=> Quantitative Assays - Analytical Toxicology Instrumentation
=> Applications of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)



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