Biology of Disease

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Biology of Disease

The Nature and Investigation of Diseases

=> Nature and Investigation of Diseases
=> Characteristic Features of Diseases
=> Classification of Diseases
=> Epidemiology of Disease
=> Investigating Diseases
=> Types of Pathology Laboratories
=> Role of Hospital Laboratory Tests
=> Hospital Laboratory Tests
=> Evaluation of Laboratory Tests
=> Reference Ranges of Diseases
=> Quality of Test Results and Clinical Auditing

Pathogens and Virulence

=> Pathogens and Virulence: Introduction
=> Types of Pathogens
=> Virulence Factors: Defensive, Offensive
=> Course of Infection

Infectious Diseases and Treatments

=> Infectious Diseases and Treatments: Introduction
=> Infections of the Skin
=> Infections of the Eyes, Ears and Central Nervous System
=> Infections of the Respiratory System
=> Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
=> Infections of the Urogenital System
=> Sepsis and Systemic Infections
=> Investigating Infectious Diseases
=> Preventing Infectious Diseases
=> Controlling the Spread of Pathogens
=> Treatment of Infectious Diseases
=> Antiviral Drugs - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
=> Antibacterial Drugs - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
=> Antifungal, Antiprotozoal and Antihelminthic Drugs - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
=> Combination Therapy - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
=> Surgery - Treatment of Infectious Diseases

The Immune System

=> Types of Immune Defense
=> Nonspecific Defenses
=> Specific Immune Responses
=> Small Lymphocytes
=> Production of a Specific Immune Response

Disorders of the Immune System

=> Disorders of the Immune System: Introduction
=> Immunodeficiency Diseases
=> Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
=> Combined T and B deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
=> Antibody deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
=> The DiGeorge anomaly and the Wiskott Aldridge syndrome - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
=> The Chediak Higashi syndrome - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
=> Phagocytic defects - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
=> Complement deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
=> Autoimmune Disorders
=> Classification of Autoimmune Disorders
=> Autoimmune Disorders Affecting Endocrine Glands
=> Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease
=> Myasthenia Gravis - Autoimmune Disorders
=> Rheumatoid Arthritis - Autoimmune Disorders
=> Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Autoimmune Disorders
=> Immunological Hypersensitivity
=> Type I Immunological Hypersensitivity
=> Type II Immunological Hypersensitivity
=> Type III Immunological Hypersensitivity
=> Type IV Delayed Type Immunological Hypersensitivity

Transfusion and Transplantation

=> Transfusion and Transplantation: Introduction
=> Blood and Blood Products for Transfusion
=> The Discovery of the Blood Group Systems
=> The ABO Blood Group System (ISBT 001)
=> The Rh Blood Group System (ISBT 004)
=> Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
=> Other Blood Group Systems
=> Laboratory Determination of Blood Groups
=> Role of Complement in Transfusion Reactions
=> Hazards of Transfusion
=> Screening of Blood Donors
=> Transplantation of Solid Tissues and Organs
=> HLA System and Typing
=> Immunosuppression
=> Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Disorders of the Endocrine System

=> Disorders of the Endocrine System
=> Hormone Production
=> Mechanisms of Hormonal Action
=> Causes of Endocrine Disorders
=> Pituitary Gland
=> Disorders of Pituitary Function
=> Growth Hormone Disorders
=> Diagnosis and Treatment of Growth Hormone Disorders
=> Thyroid Hormone Disorders
=> Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Disorders
=> Regulation of Blood Glucose
=> Diabetes Mellitus
=> Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus
=> Hypoglycemia - Regulation of Blood Glucose
=> Diagnosis and treatment of hypoglycemia
=> Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
=> Addison’s Disease - Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
=> Diagnosis and treatment of Addison’s disease
=> Cushing’s Syndrome - Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
=> Diagnosis and treatment of Cushing’s syndrome
=> Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Diagnosis and treatment - Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
=> Conn’s Syndrome: Diagnosis and treatment
=> Reproductive Hormones
=> Disorders of Sex Hormones

Disorders of Water Electrolytes and Urate Balances

=> Disorders of Water, Electrolytes and Urate Balances
=> Kidneys
=> Renal Function Tests
=> Renal Failure: Acute and Chronic renal failure
=> Disorders of Water Homeostasis
=> Disorders of Na+ Homeostasis
=> Disorders of K+ Homeostasis
=> Disorders of Ca2+ Homeostasis
=> Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis
=> Disorders of Mg2+ Homeostasis
=> Disorders of Urate Metabolism

Disorders of Acid Base Balance

=> Disorders of Acid Base Balance
=> The Production and Transport of Carbon Dioxide
=> Buffering and the Excretion of H+
=> Types of Acid–Base Disorders
=> Metabolic Acid Base Disorders
=> Respiratory Acid Base Disorders
=> Mixed Acid Base Disorders
=> Investigating Acid Base Disorders

Diet and Disease

=> Diet and Disease: Introduction
=> Diet and Nutrition
=> Nutrients and Energy - Diet and Nutrition
=> Carbohydrates - Diet and Nutrition
=> Lipids and fatty acids - Diet and Nutrition
=> Proteins - Diet and Nutrition
=> Water - Diet and Nutrition
=> Vitamins - Diet and Nutrition
=> Minerals and Trace Elements - Diet and Nutrition
=> Protein Energy Malnutrition - Nutritional Disorders
=> Obesity - Nutritional Disorders
=> Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - Nutritional Disorders
=> Hypovitaminoses and Hypervitaminoses - Disorders of Vitamin Nutrition
=> Nutritional Disorders of Minerals and Trace Elements
=> Investigating Nutritional Disorders
=> Protein-Energy Malnutrition - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
=> Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
=> Vitamins - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
=> Minerals and Trace Elements - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
=> General Management of Nutritional Disorders

Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract Pancreas Liver and Gall Bladder

=> Gastrointestinal Tract and its Accessory Organs
=> Digestion: Mouth, Stomach, Small Intestine
=> Absorption of the Products of Digestion
=> Activities of the Large Intestine
=> Small Intestine and Homeostasis
=> Hormonal Control of GIT Secretions
=> Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas
=> Disorders of the Liver, Gall Bladder and Bile Duct
=> Disorders of the Stomach
=> Disorders of the Small Intestine
=> Disorders of the Large Intestine


=> Toxicology
=> Drug Action, Metabolism, Distribution and Excretion
=> Physiological Detoxification Mechanisms
=> Symptomatic Poisoning
=> Paracetamol - Toxicology Poisons
=> Aspirin - Toxicology Poisons
=> Ethanol - Toxicology Poisons
=> Methanol - Toxicology Poisons
=> Ethylene Glycol - Toxicology Poisons
=> Barbiturates - Toxicology Poisons
=> Carbon Monoxide - Toxicology Poisons
=> Paraquat - Toxicology Poisons
=> Metals - Toxicology Poisons

Disorders of the Blood

=> Disorders of the Blood
=> Blood Cells and Platelets
=> Hemoglobins
=> Hemostasis and Blood Clotting
=> Anemias: Microcytic and Macrocytic Anemia
=> Microcytic Anemias
=> Macrocytic Anemia
=> Hemoglobinopathies
=> Sickle Cell Anemia - Hemoglobinopathies
=> Thalassemias - Hemoglobinopathies
=> Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (G6PD) Favism
=> Clinical Aspects of Clotting
=> Thrombocytopenia and Thrombocytosis

Disorders of the Cardiovascular System

=> Disorders of the Cardiovascular System: Introduction
=> Heart and Circulatory Systems
=> Blood Vessels
=> Blood Pressure
=> Investigating Cardiac Function in Health and Disease
=> Electrocardiogram (ECG) - Investigating Cardiac Function in Health and Disease
=> Endocarditis
=> Abnormal Heart Rhythms
=> Cardic Failure: Investigation, Treatment, Chronic and Acute Heart Failure
=> Ischemic Heart Disease
=> Cardiomyopathies
=> Heart Valve Disorders
=> Heart Tumors
=> Atherosclerosis or Arteriosclerosis
=> Angina - Atherosclerosis or Arteriosclerosis
=> Cholesterol and Lipoproteins
=> Myocardial Infarction
=> Pericardial Diseases
=> Disorders of Arteries and Veins
=> Clinical Problems Associated with Blood Pressure

Genetic Diseases

=> Genetic Diseases
=> Genetics and DNA
=> DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle
=> Genotype and Phenotype
=> Inheritance and Mutations
=> Sex linked Genetic Diseases
=> Inherited Gene Disorders
=> Consequences of an Enzyme Deficiency
=> National Screening Programs for Inherited Diseases
=> Chromosomes and the Human Karyotype
=> Fragile Sites - Chromosomes and the Human Karyotype
=> Chromosomal Mutations or Aberrations
=> Aneuploidy - Variations in Chromosome Numbers
=> Euploidy - Variations in Chromosome Numbers
=> Detecting, Diagnosing and Screening Human Genetics Diseases

Membrane Organelle and Cytoskeletal Disorders

=> Nucleus and Nucleocytoplasmic Transport
=> Plasma Membrane Disorders
=> Cystic Fibrosis: Diagnosis and treatment - Plasma Membrane Disorders
=> Mitochondrial Disorders: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment
=> Causes of Mitochondrial Disorders
=> Diagnosis and Treatment of Mitochondrial Disorders
=> Peroxisomal Disorders
=> Diagnosis and Treatment of Peroxisomal Disorders
=> Lysosomal Disorders
=> Diagnosis and Treatment of Lysosomal Storage Disorders
=> Cytoskeletal Disorders
=> Muscular Dystrophies: Diagnosis and treatment
=> Hereditary Elliptocytosis and Spherocytosis: Diagnosis and treatment


=> Cancer
=> Classification of Cancer Types
=> Epidemiology of Cancer
=> Molecular Biology of Cancer
=> Causes of Cancer
=> Clinical Tests for Cancer - General Diagnosis of Cancer
=> General Treatment of Cancer
=> Chemotherapy - General Treatment of Cancer
=> Radiation Therapy - General Treatment of Cancer
=> Immunotherapy - General Treatment of Cancer
=> Lung Cancer: Classification, Treatment, Signs, symptoms, diagnosis and staging
=> Breast Cancer: Treatment, Signs, symptoms, diagnosis and staging
=> Prostate Cancer: Treatment, Signs, symptoms and staging
=> Colorectal Cancer: Treatment, Signs, symptoms, diagnosis and staging
=> Leukemias: Chronic myelogenous, Acute myeloid, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Aging and Disease

=> Aging and Disease
=> Aging of Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems
=> Causes of Aging: Wear and Tear, Genome Based Theories
=> Age Related Diseases
=> Calorie Restriction and Aging
=> Investigations and Management of the Elderly

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