Biology of Disease

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Biology of Disease

Biology of Disease

The Nature and Investigation of Diseases

Nature and Investigation of Diseases
Characteristic Features of Diseases
Classification of Diseases
Epidemiology of Disease
Investigating Diseases
Types of Pathology Laboratories
Role of Hospital Laboratory Tests
Hospital Laboratory Tests
Evaluation of Laboratory Tests
Reference Ranges of Diseases
Quality of Test Results and Clinical Auditing

Pathogens and Virulence

Pathogens and Virulence: Introduction
Types of Pathogens
Virulence Factors: Defensive, Offensive
Course of Infection

Infectious Diseases and Treatments

Infectious Diseases and Treatments: Introduction
Infections of the Skin
Infections of the Eyes, Ears and Central Nervous System
Infections of the Respiratory System
Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Infections of the Urogenital System
Sepsis and Systemic Infections
Investigating Infectious Diseases
Preventing Infectious Diseases
Controlling the Spread of Pathogens
Treatment of Infectious Diseases
Antiviral Drugs - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
Antibacterial Drugs - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
Antifungal, Antiprotozoal and Antihelminthic Drugs - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
Combination Therapy - Treatment of Infectious Diseases
Surgery - Treatment of Infectious Diseases

The Immune System

Types of Immune Defense
Nonspecific Defenses
Specific Immune Responses
Small Lymphocytes
Production of a Specific Immune Response

Disorders of the Immune System

Disorders of the Immune System: Introduction
Immunodeficiency Diseases
Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
Combined T and B deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
Antibody deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
The DiGeorge anomaly and the Wiskott Aldridge syndrome - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
The Chediak Higashi syndrome - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
Phagocytic defects - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
Complement deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Disease
Autoimmune Disorders
Classification of Autoimmune Disorders
Autoimmune Disorders Affecting Endocrine Glands
Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease
Myasthenia Gravis - Autoimmune Disorders
Rheumatoid Arthritis - Autoimmune Disorders
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Autoimmune Disorders
Immunological Hypersensitivity
Type I Immunological Hypersensitivity
Type II Immunological Hypersensitivity
Type III Immunological Hypersensitivity
Type IV Delayed Type Immunological Hypersensitivity

Transfusion and Transplantation

Transfusion and Transplantation: Introduction
Blood and Blood Products for Transfusion
The Discovery of the Blood Group Systems
The ABO Blood Group System (ISBT 001)
The Rh Blood Group System (ISBT 004)
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
Other Blood Group Systems
Laboratory Determination of Blood Groups
Role of Complement in Transfusion Reactions
Hazards of Transfusion
Screening of Blood Donors
Transplantation of Solid Tissues and Organs
HLA System and Typing
Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Disorders of the Endocrine System

Disorders of the Endocrine System
Hormone Production
Mechanisms of Hormonal Action
Causes of Endocrine Disorders
Pituitary Gland
Disorders of Pituitary Function
Growth Hormone Disorders
Diagnosis and Treatment of Growth Hormone Disorders
Thyroid Hormone Disorders
Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Disorders
Regulation of Blood Glucose
Diabetes Mellitus
Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus
Hypoglycemia - Regulation of Blood Glucose
Diagnosis and treatment of hypoglycemia
Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
Addison’s Disease - Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
Diagnosis and treatment of Addison’s disease
Cushing’s Syndrome - Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
Diagnosis and treatment of Cushing’s syndrome
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Diagnosis and treatment - Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
Conn’s Syndrome: Diagnosis and treatment
Reproductive Hormones
Disorders of Sex Hormones

Disorders of Water Electrolytes and Urate Balances

Disorders of Water, Electrolytes and Urate Balances
Renal Function Tests
Renal Failure: Acute and Chronic renal failure
Disorders of Water Homeostasis
Disorders of Na+ Homeostasis
Disorders of K+ Homeostasis
Disorders of Ca2+ Homeostasis
Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis
Disorders of Mg2+ Homeostasis
Disorders of Urate Metabolism

Disorders of Acid Base Balance

Disorders of Acid Base Balance
The Production and Transport of Carbon Dioxide
Buffering and the Excretion of H+
Types of Acid–Base Disorders
Metabolic Acid Base Disorders
Respiratory Acid Base Disorders
Mixed Acid Base Disorders
Investigating Acid Base Disorders

Diet and Disease

Diet and Disease: Introduction
Diet and Nutrition
Nutrients and Energy - Diet and Nutrition
Carbohydrates - Diet and Nutrition
Lipids and fatty acids - Diet and Nutrition
Proteins - Diet and Nutrition
Water - Diet and Nutrition
Vitamins - Diet and Nutrition
Minerals and Trace Elements - Diet and Nutrition
Protein Energy Malnutrition - Nutritional Disorders
Obesity - Nutritional Disorders
Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - Nutritional Disorders
Hypovitaminoses and Hypervitaminoses - Disorders of Vitamin Nutrition
Nutritional Disorders of Minerals and Trace Elements
Investigating Nutritional Disorders
Protein-Energy Malnutrition - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
Vitamins - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
Minerals and Trace Elements - Investigating Nutritional Disorders
General Management of Nutritional Disorders

Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract Pancreas Liver and Gall Bladder

Gastrointestinal Tract and its Accessory Organs
Digestion: Mouth, Stomach, Small Intestine
Absorption of the Products of Digestion
Activities of the Large Intestine
Small Intestine and Homeostasis
Hormonal Control of GIT Secretions
Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas
Disorders of the Liver, Gall Bladder and Bile Duct
Disorders of the Stomach
Disorders of the Small Intestine
Disorders of the Large Intestine


Drug Action, Metabolism, Distribution and Excretion
Physiological Detoxification Mechanisms
Symptomatic Poisoning
Paracetamol - Toxicology Poisons
Aspirin - Toxicology Poisons
Ethanol - Toxicology Poisons
Methanol - Toxicology Poisons
Ethylene Glycol - Toxicology Poisons
Barbiturates - Toxicology Poisons
Carbon Monoxide - Toxicology Poisons
Paraquat - Toxicology Poisons
Metals - Toxicology Poisons

Disorders of the Blood

Disorders of the Blood
Blood Cells and Platelets
Hemostasis and Blood Clotting
Anemias: Microcytic and Macrocytic Anemia
Microcytic Anemias
Macrocytic Anemia
Sickle Cell Anemia - Hemoglobinopathies
Thalassemias - Hemoglobinopathies
Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (G6PD) Favism
Clinical Aspects of Clotting
Thrombocytopenia and Thrombocytosis

Disorders of the Cardiovascular System

Disorders of the Cardiovascular System: Introduction
Heart and Circulatory Systems
Blood Vessels
Blood Pressure
Investigating Cardiac Function in Health and Disease
Electrocardiogram (ECG) - Investigating Cardiac Function in Health and Disease
Abnormal Heart Rhythms
Cardic Failure: Investigation, Treatment, Chronic and Acute Heart Failure
Ischemic Heart Disease
Heart Valve Disorders
Heart Tumors
Atherosclerosis or Arteriosclerosis
Angina - Atherosclerosis or Arteriosclerosis
Cholesterol and Lipoproteins
Myocardial Infarction
Pericardial Diseases
Disorders of Arteries and Veins
Clinical Problems Associated with Blood Pressure

Genetic Diseases

Genetic Diseases
Genetics and DNA
DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle
Genotype and Phenotype
Inheritance and Mutations
Sex linked Genetic Diseases
Inherited Gene Disorders
Consequences of an Enzyme Deficiency
National Screening Programs for Inherited Diseases
Chromosomes and the Human Karyotype
Fragile Sites - Chromosomes and the Human Karyotype
Chromosomal Mutations or Aberrations
Aneuploidy - Variations in Chromosome Numbers
Euploidy - Variations in Chromosome Numbers
Detecting, Diagnosing and Screening Human Genetics Diseases

Membrane Organelle and Cytoskeletal Disorders

Nucleus and Nucleocytoplasmic Transport
Plasma Membrane Disorders
Cystic Fibrosis: Diagnosis and treatment - Plasma Membrane Disorders
Mitochondrial Disorders: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment
Causes of Mitochondrial Disorders
Diagnosis and Treatment of Mitochondrial Disorders
Peroxisomal Disorders
Diagnosis and Treatment of Peroxisomal Disorders
Lysosomal Disorders
Diagnosis and Treatment of Lysosomal Storage Disorders
Cytoskeletal Disorders
Muscular Dystrophies: Diagnosis and treatment
Hereditary Elliptocytosis and Spherocytosis: Diagnosis and treatment


Classification of Cancer Types
Epidemiology of Cancer
Molecular Biology of Cancer
Causes of Cancer
Clinical Tests for Cancer - General Diagnosis of Cancer
General Treatment of Cancer
Chemotherapy - General Treatment of Cancer
Radiation Therapy - General Treatment of Cancer
Immunotherapy - General Treatment of Cancer
Lung Cancer: Classification, Treatment, Signs, symptoms, diagnosis and staging
Breast Cancer: Treatment, Signs, symptoms, diagnosis and staging
Prostate Cancer: Treatment, Signs, symptoms and staging
Colorectal Cancer: Treatment, Signs, symptoms, diagnosis and staging
Leukemias: Chronic myelogenous, Acute myeloid, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Aging and Disease

Aging and Disease
Aging of Cells, Tissues, Organs and Systems
Causes of Aging: Wear and Tear, Genome Based Theories
Age Related Diseases
Calorie Restriction and Aging
Investigations and Management of the Elderly

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