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Most infectious diseases can be treated using drug therapies. However, surgical intervention may be required in instances when the pathogen is resistant to available treatments or where it is the only means to contain an infection that is spreading to other areas of the body, as, for example, in gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens (Figure 3.38) or necrotizing fasciitis (Margin Note3.6). In other cases, surgery might be desirable because access to the affectedsite by the antimicrobial agents is limited, as in the case of some abscesses or appendectomy where surgical drainage or removal of necrotic tissue respectively can enhance the recovery process.
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