Medicine and surgery: Principles and practice of medicine and surgery

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Medicine and surgery: Principles and practice of medicine and surgery

Principles and practice of medicine and surgery


=> Water and sodium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance
=> Assessing fluid balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance
=> Hypernatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance
=> Hyponatraemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance
=> Potassium balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance
=> Hyperkalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance
=> Hypokalaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance
=> Intravenous fluids - Fluid and electrolyte balance
=> Acid-base balance - Fluid and electrolyte balance
=> Hypercalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance
=> Hypocalcaemia - Fluid and electrolyte balance
=> The preoperative assessment - Perioperative care
=> Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery - Perioperative care
=> Nutritional support in surgical patients - Perioperative care
=> Postoperative complications - Perioperative care
=> Surgical site infection - Perioperative care
=> Pain control - Perioperative care
=> Nosocomial infections - Infections
=> Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) - Infections
=> Septicaemia and septic shock - Infections

Cardiovascular system


=> Cardiovascular chest pain - Clinical Symptoms
=> Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms
=> Palpitations - Clinical Symptoms
=> Syncope - Clinical Symptoms
=> Intermittent claudication - Clinical Symptoms
=> Signs of Oedema
=> Signs of Cyanosis
=> Signs of The arterial pulse
=> Signs of Jugular venous pressure
=> Signs of Precordial heaves, thrills and pulsation
=> Signs of Heart murmurs
=> Coronary angioplasty: Investigations and procedures
=> Coronary artery bypass surgery: Investigations and procedures
=> Valve surgery: Investigations and procedures
=> Permanent pacemakers: Investigations and procedures
=> Echocardiography: Investigations and procedures
=> Ischaemic heart disease
=> Chronic stable angina - Ischaemic heart disease
=> Acute coronary syndrome - Ischaemic heart disease
=> Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease
=> Acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) - Ischaemic heart disease
=> Variant/Prinzmetal’s angina - Ischaemic heart disease
=> Rheumatic fever
=> Mitral regurgitation - valve disease
=> Mitral valve prolase - valve disease
=> Mitral stenosis - valve disease
=> Aortic regurgitation - valve disease
=> Aortic stenosis - valve disease
=> Pulmonary stenosis - valve disease
=> Tricuspid regurgitation - valve disease
=> Cardiac arrhythmias
=> Sinus bradycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias
=> Sinus tachycardia - Sinus nodal arrhythmias
=> Sinus node disease - Sinus nodal arrhythmias
=> Atrial ectopic beats - Atrial arrhythmias
=> Atrial flutter - Atrial arrhythmias
=> Atrial fibrillation - Atrial arrhythmias
=> Junctional tachycardia - Junctional arrhythmias
=> Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - Junctional arrhythmias
=> Ventricular ectopic beats - Ventricular arrhythmias
=> Ventricular tachycardia - Ventricular arrhythmias
=> Torsades de pointes - Ventricular arrhythmias
=> Ventricular fibrillation - Ventricular arrhythmias
=> Atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances
=> First degree atrioventricular block - Conduction disturbances
=> Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type I (Wenckebach phenomenon)
=> Second degree atrioventricular block - Mobitz type II
=> Third degree atrioventricular block (complete heart block)
=> Left bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances
=> Right bundle branch block - Conduction disturbances
=> Heart failure - Cardiac failure
=> Acute pulmonary oedema - Cardiac failure
=> Cardiogenic shock - Cardiac failure
=> Chronic cor pulmonale - Cardiac failure
=> Acute pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium
=> Constrictive pericarditis - Disorders of the pericardium
=> Pericardial effusion - Disorders of the pericardium
=> Cardiac tamponade - Disorders of the pericardium
=> Myocarditis - Disorders of the myocardium
=> Cardiomyopathies - Disorders of the myocardium
=> Dilated cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium
=> Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium
=> Restrictive cardiomyopathy - Disorders of the myocardium
=> Infective endocarditis - Disorders of the endocardium
=> Systemic hypertension - Hypertension and vascular diseases
=> Peripheral arterial disease - Hypertension and vascular diseases
=> Aneurysms - Hypertension and vascular diseases
=> Abdominal aortic aneurysm - Hypertension and vascular diseases
=> Thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection - Hypertension and vascular diseases
=> Acute peripheral arterial occlusion - Hypertension and vascular diseases
=> Deep vein thrombosis - Hypertension and vascular diseases
=> Varicose veins - Hypertension and vascular diseases
=> Superficial thrombophlebitis - Hypertension and vascular diseases
=> Chronic venous ulceration - Hypertension and vascular diseases
=> Introduction to congenital heart disease
=> Ventricular septal defects - congenital heart disease
=> Atrial septal defects - congenital heart disease
=> Coarctation of the aorta - Congenital heart disease
=> Fallot’s tetralogy - Congenital heart disease
=> Atrial myxoma - Cardiovascular oncology
=> Carotid body tumours - Cardiovascular oncology

Respiratory system


=> Cough and sputum - Clinical Symptoms
=> Dyspnoea - Clinical Symptoms
=> Wheeze and stridor - Clinical Symptoms
=> Respiratory chest pain - Clinical Symptoms
=> Clubbing - Signs
=> Breath sounds - Signs
=> Lung function testing - Respiratory procedures
=> Bronchoscopy - Respiratory procedures
=> Thoracic surgery - Respiratory procedures
=> Acute bronchitis - Respiratory infections
=> Pneumonia - Respiratory infections
=> Tuberculosis - Respiratory infections
=> Influenza - Respiratory infections
=> Lung abscess - Respiratory infections
=> Aspergillus fumigatus - Respiratory infections
=> Asthma - Obstructive lung disorders
=> Chronic bronchitis and emphysema - Respiratory infections
=> Sleep apnoea/Pickwickian syndrome - Respiratory infections
=> Pulmonary fibrosis and honeycomb lung - Restrictive lung disorders
=> Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - usual interstitial pneumonia - Restrictive lung disorders
=> Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Restrictive lung disorders
=> Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
=> Cystic fibrosis - Suppurative lung disorders
=> Bronchiectasis - Suppurative lung disorders
=> Sarcoidosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders
=> Wegener’s granulomatosis - Granulomatous/vasculitic lung disorders
=> Pleural effusion
=> Empyema
=> Pneumothorax
=> Pleurisy
=> Respiratory failure
=> Pulmonary embolism
=> Pulmonary hypertension
=> Occupational lung disease
=> Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis - Occupational lung disease
=> Silicosis - Occupational lung disease
=> Bronchial carcinoma - Respiratory oncology
=> Bronchial carcinoid tumours - Respiratory oncology
=> Secondary lung tumours - Respiratory oncology

Gastrointestinal system


=> Abdominal pain - Clinical Symptoms
=> Nausea and vomiting - Clinical Symptoms
=> Dysphagia - Clinical Symptoms
=> Diarrhoea - Clinical Symptoms
=> Rectal bleeding - Clinical Symptoms
=> Constipation - Clinical Symptoms
=> Weight loss - Clinical Symptoms
=> The acute abdomen introduction - GI presentations
=> Dyspepsia - GI presentations
=> Peritonitis - GI presentations
=> Intestinal obstruction - GI presentations
=> Paralytic ileus - GI presentations
=> Pseudo obstruction - GI presentations
=> Acute upper gastrointestinal bleed - GI presentations
=> Pruritus ani - GI presentations
=> Barium (contrast) studies - Investigations and procedures
=> Endoscopy - Investigations and procedures
=> Gastric surgery - Investigations and procedures
=> Small bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures
=> Large bowel surgery - Investigations and procedures
=> Food poisoning - Gastrointestinal infections
=> Bacilliary dysentery - Gastrointestinal infections
=> Enteric Escherichia Coli infections - Gastrointestinal infections
=> Pseudomembranous colitis - Gastrointestinal infections
=> Giardiasis - Gastrointestinal infections
=> Amoebiasis - Gastrointestinal infections
=> Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) - Gastrointestinal infections
=> Botulism - Gastrointestinal infections
=> Cholera - Gastrointestinal infections
=> Tuberculosis and the GI tract - Gastrointestinal infections
=> Abdominal hernias - Disorders of the abdominal wall
=> Gastrooesophageal reflux disease - Disorders of the oesophagus
=> Hiatus hernia - Disorders of the oesophagus
=> Pharyngeal pouch - Disorders of the oesophagus
=> Plummer Vinson syndrome - Disorders of the oesophagus
=> Achalasia - Disorders of the oesophagus
=> Diffuse oesophageal spasm - Disorders of the oesophagus
=> Mallory Weiss tear - Disorders of the oesophagus
=> Oesophageal perforation - Disorders of the oesophagus
=> Gastritis - Disorders of the stomach
=> Acute erosive gastritis - Disorders of the stomach
=> Peptic ulcer disease - Disorders of the stomach
=> Helicobacter pylori - Disorders of the stomach
=> Zollinger Ellinson syndrome - Disorders of the stomach
=> Acute appendicitis - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix
=> Meckel’s diverticulum - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix
=> Malabsorption syndromes - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix
=> Coeliac disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix
=> Whipple’s disease - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix
=> Tropical sprue - Disorders of the small bowel and appendix
=> Diverticular disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel disease
=> Irritable bowel syndrome - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel disease
=> Ulcerative colitis - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel disease
=> Crohn’s disease - Disorders of the large bowel and inflammatory bowel disease
=> Haemorrhoids (piles) - Disorders of the rectum and anus
=> Rectal prolapse - Disorders of the rectum and anus
=> Fissure-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus
=> Fistula-in-ano - Disorders of the rectum and anus
=> Pilonidal sinus - Disorders of the rectum and anus
=> Anorectal abscess - Disorders of the rectum and anus
=> Intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel
=> Focal ischaemia of the bowel - Vascular disease of the bowel
=> Ischaemic colitis - Vascular disease of the bowel
=> Chronic intestinal ischaemia - Vascular disease of the bowel
=> Acute intestinal failure - Vascular disease of the bowel
=> Oesophageal carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology
=> Benign gastric tumours - Gastrointestinal oncology
=> Gastric adenocarcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology
=> Gastric lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology
=> Small intestine lymphoma - Gastrointestinal oncology
=> Carcinoid tumours of the intestine - Gastrointestinal oncology
=> Large bowel neoplastic polyps - Gastrointestinal oncology
=> Large bowel carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology
=> Anal squamous cell carcinoma - Gastrointestinal oncology
=> Familial adenomatous polyposis - Gastrointestinal oncology
=> Peutz-Jegher syndrome - Gastrointestinal oncology

Hepatic biliary and pancreatic systems


=> Pain from the liver, biliary and pancreatic systems - Clinical Symptoms
=> Jaundice - Clinical Symptoms
=> Signs: Hepatomegaly
=> Signs of chronic liver disease
=> Signs: Ascites
=> Liver function testing - Investigations and procedures
=> Pancreatic function tests - Investigations and procedures
=> Imaging of the liver, biliary system and pancreas - Investigations and procedures
=> Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) - Investigations and procedures
=> Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) - Investigations and procedures
=> Liver biopsy - Investigations and procedures
=> Liver resection - Investigations and procedures
=> Cholecystectomy - Investigations and procedures
=> Introduction to the liver and liver disease - Disorders of the liver
=> Acute hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease
=> Chronic hepatitis - Patterns of liver disease
=> Cirrhosis - Patterns of liver disease
=> Fulminant hepatic failure - Patterns of liver disease
=> Portal hypertension - Complications of chronic liver disease
=> Bleeding oesophageal varices - Complications of chronic liver disease
=> Viral hepatitis - Complications of chronic liver disease
=> Hepatitis A - Complications of chronic liver disease
=> Hepatitis B - Complications of chronic liver disease
=> Hepatitis C - Complications of chronic liver disease
=> Hepatitis D - Complications of chronic liver disease
=> Hepatitis E - Complications of chronic liver disease
=> Alcohol-induced liver disease
=> Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
=> Drug-induced liver disease
=> Autoimmune chronic hepatitis - liver disease
=> Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) - liver disease
=> Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) - liver disease
=> α1 Antitrypsin deficiency - liver disease
=> Hereditary haemochromatosis - liver disease
=> Wilson’s disease - liver disease
=> Pyogenic liver abscess - liver disease
=> Amoebic liver abscess - liver disease
=> Hydatid disease - liver disease
=> Benign tumours of the liver - Tumours of the liver
=> Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Tumours of the liver
=> Metastatic liver tumours - Tumours of the liver
=> Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) - Disorders of the gallbladder
=> Carcinoma of the gallbladder - Disorders of the gallbladder
=> Carcinoma of the bile ducts - Disorders of the gallbladder
=> Introduction to the pancreas Disorders
=> Acute pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas
=> Chronic pancreatitis - Disorders of the pancreas
=> Carcinoma of the pancreas - Tumours of the pancreas
=> Islet cell tumours - Tumours of the pancreas

Genitourinary system


=> Loin pain - Clinical Symptoms
=> Dysuria - Clinical Symptoms
=> Change in urinary frequency, flow and volume - Clinical Symptoms
=> Haematuria and discoloured urine - Clinical Symptoms
=> Urine tests - Investigations and procedures
=> Proteinuria - Investigations and procedures
=> Imaging of the urinary tract - Investigations and procedures
=> Cystoscopy - Investigations and procedures
=> Measuring renal function - Investigations and procedures
=> Anion gap - Investigations and procedures
=> Renal biopsy - Investigations and procedures
=> Dialysis - Investigations and procedures
=> Renal failure - Disorders of the kidney
=> Acute renal failure - Disorders of the kidney
=> Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) - Disorders of the kidney
=> Chronic renal failure - Disorders of the kidney
=> Renal osteodystrophy - Disorders of the kidney
=> Glomerular disease
=> Nephrotic syndrome - Glomerular disease
=> Nephritic syndrome - Glomerular disease
=> Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease
=> Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease
=> IgA nephropathy - Glomerular disease
=> Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) - Glomerular disease
=> Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (membranoproliferative GN) - Glomerular disease
=> Minimal change disease - Glomerular disease
=> Membranous glomerulonephritis - Glomerular disease
=> Focal (segmental) glomerulosclerosis - Glomerular disease
=> Tubulointerstitial disease - Tubular and interstitial diseases
=> Renal tubular syndromes - Tubular and interstitial diseases
=> Renal tubular acidosis - Tubular and interstitial diseases
=> Hyperuricaemic (gouty) nephropathy - Tubular and interstitial diseases
=> Adult polycystic kidney disease - Renal cystic disease
=> Simple renal cysts - Renal cystic disease
=> Urinary tract obstruction - Renal tract obstruction
=> Pelviureteric junction obstruction (idiopathic hydronephrosis) - Renal tract obstruction
=> The kidney in sytemic disease
=> Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - haemolytic uraemic syndrome
=> Congenital malformations of the kidney - Congenital disorders of the kidney
=> Congenital malformations of the ureter - Congenital disorders of the kidney
=> Bladder outflow obstruction - Disorders of the bladder and prostate
=> Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Disorders of the bladder and prostate
=> Urinary incontinence - Disorders of the bladder and prostate
=> Urinary tract infections (UTIs) - Urinary tract infections
=> Acute pyelonephritis - Urinary tract infections
=> Renal or perinephric abscess - Urinary tract infections
=> Chronic pyelonephritis (reflux nephropathy) - Urinary tract infections
=> Urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) - Urinary tract infections
=> Acute epididymo orchitis - Urinary tract infections
=> Urinary stones
=> Stag horn calculus - Urinary stones
=> Torsion of the testis - Disorders of the male genital system
=> Hydrocele - Disorders of the male genital system
=> Varicocele - Disorders of the male genital system
=> Phimosis - Disorders of the male genital system
=> Epididymal cysts - Disorders of the male genital system
=> Impotence - Disorders of the male genital system
=> Kidney tumours - Genitourinary oncology
=> Renal cell carcinoma - Genitourinary oncology
=> Bladder cancer - Genitourinary oncology
=> Prostate cancer - Genitourinary oncology
=> Introduction to testicular tumours - Genitourinary oncology
=> Seminoma - Genitourinary oncology
=> Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ cell tumours) - Genitourinary oncology
=> Leydig cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology
=> Sertoli cell tumour - Genitourinary oncology

Nervous system


=> Headache - Clinical Symptoms
=> Fits and faints - Clinical Symptoms
=> Dizziness and vertigo - Clinical Symptoms
=> Altered sensation or weakness in the limbs - Clinical Symptoms
=> Patterns of neurological disorders
=> Upper motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders
=> Lower motor neurone signs - Patterns of neurological disorders
=> Cerebellar signs - Patterns of sensory loss
=> Extrapyramidal signs (Parkinsonism) - Patterns of sensory loss
=> Gait - Patterns of sensory loss
=> Electroencephalography - Investigations and procedures
=> Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) - Investigations and procedures
=> Lumbar puncture - Investigations and procedures
=> CT head - Investigations and procedures
=> MRI brain and spinal cord - Investigations and procedures
=> Stroke - Cerebrovascular disease
=> Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) - Cerebrovascular disease
=> Hypoxic ischaemic brain injury - Cerebrovascular disease
=> Intracerebral haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease
=> Sub/extradural haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease
=> Subarachnoid haemorrhage - Cerebrovascular disease
=> Intracranial venous thrombosis - Cerebrovascular disease
=> Bacterial meningitis - Infections of the nervous system: Meningitis and encephalitis
=> Viral meningitis - Infections of the nervous system
=> Tuberculous meningitis - Infections of the nervous system
=> Other causes of meningitis - Infections of the nervous system
=> Acute viral encephalitis - Infections of the nervous system
=> Tetanus - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders
=> Poliomyelitis - Miscellaneous infective or post infective CNS disorders
=> Cerebritis and cerebral abscess - Abscesses of the nervous system
=> Tuberculoma - Abscesses of the nervous system
=> Epilepsy - Disorders of consciousness and memory
=> Acute confusional state (delirium) - Disorders of consciousness and memory
=> Coma - Disorders of consciousness and memory
=> Head Injury - Disorders of consciousness and memory
=> Dementia - Disorders of consciousness and memory
=> Alzheimer’s disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory
=> Creutzfeld Jakob disease - Disorders of consciousness and memory
=> Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome - Disorders of consciousness and memory
=> Brain death - Disorders of consciousness and memory
=> Parkinson’s disease
=> Other causes of Parkinsonism
=> Benign essential tremor
=> Huntington’s disease
=> Multiple sclerosis
=> Hydrocephalus - CNS causes of headache
=> Idiopathic intracranial hypertension - CNS causes of headache
=> Migraine - CNS causes of headache
=> Tension headache - CNS causes of headache
=> Trigeminal neuralgia - CNS causes of headache
=> Motor neurone disease
=> Spinal cord lesions - Disorders of the spinal cord
=> Spinal cord compression - Disorders of the spinal cord
=> Syringomyelia and syringobulbia - Disorders of the spinal cord
=> Transverse myelitis - Disorders of the spinal cord
=> Myotonic dystrophy - Muscular dystrophies
=> Myasthenia gravis - Neuromuscular junction disorders
=> Eaton-Lambert syndrome - Neuromuscular junction disorders
=> Olfactory nerve (I) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> The optic nerve - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Abnormalities of the optic disc - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Horner’s syndrome - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Oculomotor nerve (III) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Trochlear nerve (IV) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Abducent nerve (VI) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Trigeminal nerve (V) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Facial nerve (VII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Bell’s palsy - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) lesion - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Accessory nerve (XI) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Hypoglossal nerve (XII) lesions - Disorders of cranial nerves
=> Lesions of peripheral nerves - Disorders of Peripheral nerves
=> Guillain Barre syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves
=> Brachial plexus injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves
=> Median nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves
=> Carpal tunnel syndrome - Disorders of Peripheral nerves
=> Ulnar nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves
=> Radial nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves
=> Sciatic nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves
=> Femoral nerve injuries - Disorders of Peripheral nerves
=> Peroneal nerve lesions - Disorders of Peripheral nerves
=> Cerebral palsy - Hereditary and congenital disorders
=> Neurofibromatosis type 1 - Hereditary and congenital disorders
=> Neurofibromatosis type 2 - Hereditary and congenital disorders
=> Tuberose sclerosis - Hereditary and congenital disorders
=> Friedreich’s ataxia - Hereditary and congenital disorders
=> Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease)
=> Primary intracranial tumours - Tumours of the nervous system
=> Meningioma - Tumours of the nervous system
=> Gliomas (astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas) - Tumours of the nervous system

Musculoskeletal system


=> Joint pain - Clinical Symptoms
=> Joint swelling - Clinical Symptoms
=> Joint stiffness - Clinical Symptoms
=> Laboratory investigations - Investigations and procedures
=> Joint aspiration - Investigations and procedures
=> Diagnostic imaging - Investigations and procedures
=> Acute osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections
=> Chronic osteomyelitis - Bone and joint infections
=> Tuberculous bone infection - Bone and joint infections
=> Septic arthritis - Bone and joint infections
=> Osteoarthritis - Bone and joint infections
=> Rheumatoid arthritis - Seropositive arthritis
=> Ankylosing spondylitis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies)
=> Psoriatic arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies)
=> Reactive arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies)
=> Inflammatory bowel disease related arthritis - Seronegative arthritides (spondyloarthropathies)
=> Systemic lupus erythematosus - Connective tissue disorders
=> Antiphospholipid syndrome - Connective tissue disorders
=> Systemic sclerosis and scleroderma - Connective tissue disorders
=> Sjogren’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders
=> Polymyositis and dermatomyositis - Connective tissue disorders
=> Marfan’s syndrome - Connective tissue disorders
=> Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - Connective tissue disorders
=> Crystal arthropathies
=> Gout - Crystal arthropathies
=> Pseudogout - Crystal arthropathies
=> Osteoporosis - Metabolic bone disorders
=> Osteomalacia - Metabolic bone disorders
=> Paget’s disease - Metabolic bone disorders
=> Achondroplasia - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders
=> Osteogenesis imperfecta - Genetic musculoskeletal disorders
=> Metastatic bone tumours - Bone tumours
=> Vasculitis
=> Polymyalgia rheumatica - Vasculitis
=> Temporal (giant cell) arteritis - Vasculitis
=> Takayasu’s syndrome - Vasculitis
=> Polyarteritis nodosa - Vasculitis
=> Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis)
=> Buerger’s disease
=> Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
=> Raynaud’s disease and phenomenon
=> Behc¸et’s syndrome

Dermatology and soft tissues


=> Clinical - Dermatology and soft tissues
=> Atopic eczema - Scaly lesions
=> Contact dermatitis - Scaly lesions
=> Seborrhoeic dermatitis - Scaly lesions
=> Psoriasis - Scaly lesions
=> Pityriasis rosea - Pityriases
=> Pityriasis versicolor and Ichthyoses - Pityriases
=> Erythema multiforme - Erythematous lesions
=> Erythema nodosum - Erythematous lesions
=> Urticaria - Erythematous lesions
=> Lichen planus - Lichenoid lesions
=> Lichen sclerosus - Lichenoid lesions
=> Lichen simplex chronicus (neurodermatitis) - Lichenoid lesions
=> Pemphigus - Bullous disorders
=> Pemphigoid - Bullous disorders
=> Dermatitis herpetiformis - Bullous disorders
=> Acne vulgaris - Facial dermatoses
=> Rosacea - Facial dermatoses
=> Alopecia - Hair and nail disorders
=> Hirsutism - Hair and nail disorders
=> Hypertrichosis - Hair and nail disorders
=> Impetigo - Bacterial infections
=> Cellulitis - Bacterial infections
=> Clostridial myonecrosis (gas gangrene) - Bacterial infections
=> Leprosy - Bacterial infections
=> Herpes simplex - Viral skin infections
=> Herpes zoster (shingles) - Viral skin infections
=> Human papillomavirus (viral warts) - Viral skin infections
=> Candida albicans - Fungal skin infections
=> Dermatophyte (ring worm) fungi - Fungal skin infections
=> Head lice - Parasitic skin infections
=> Scabies - Parasitic skin infections
=> Seborrhoeic keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps
=> Solar keratoses - Skin and soft tissue lumps
=> Dermatofibromas - Skin and soft tissue lumps
=> Benign naevi - Skin and soft tissue lumps
=> Haemangiomas - Skin and soft tissue lumps
=> Lipoma - Skin and soft tissue lumps
=> Epidermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps
=> Dermoid cysts - Skin and soft tissue lumps
=> Ganglion - Skin and soft tissue lumps
=> Basal cell carcinoma - Skin tumours
=> Squamous cell carcinoma - Skin tumours
=> Malignant melanoma - Skin tumours

Breast disorders


=> Breast lumps - Clinical Symptoms
=> Breast pain (mastalgia) - Clinical Symptoms
=> Nipple discharge - Clinical Symptoms
=> Imaging in breast disease - Investigations/procedures
=> Breast tissue sampling - Investigations/procedures
=> Breast reconstruction - Investigations/procedures
=> Benign breast disease - Benign disorders of the breast
=> Fibroadenoma - Benign disorders of the breast
=> Breast cysts - Benign disorders of the breast
=> Duct ectasia - Benign disorders of the breast
=> Duct papilloma - Benign disorders of the breast
=> Fat necrosis - Benign disorders of the breast
=> Acute mastitis - Infections of the breast
=> Breast cancer
=> UK programme - Breast cancer screening

Endocrine system


=> Principles of endocrine testing
=> Introduction to the hypothalamus and pituitary
=> Pituitary adenomas
=> Hypopituitarism
=> Dopamine and prolactin axis
=> Hyperprolactinaemia - Dopamine and prolactin axis
=> Growth axis
=> Thyroid axis
=> Multinodular goitre - Thyroid axis
=> Solitary thyroid nodule - Thyroid axis
=> Graves’ disease (primary thyrotoxicosis) - Thyroid axis
=> Thyrotoxic crisis (storm) - Thyroid axis
=> Hypothyroidism (myxoedema) - Thyroid axis
=> Hashimoto’s disease (autoimmune thyroiditis) - Thyroid axis
=> Myxoedema coma - Thyroid axis
=> Papillary adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid
=> Follicular adenocarcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid
=> Medullary carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid
=> Anaplastic carcinoma - Malignant tumours of the thyroid
=> Thyroidectomy - Malignant tumours of the thyroid
=> Adrenal axis
=> Cushing’s syndrome - Adrenal axis
=> Cushing’s disease - Adrenal axis
=> Addison’s disease - Adrenal axis
=> Addisonian crisis - Adrenal axis
=> Conn’s syndrome - Adrenal axis
=> Phaeochromocytoma - Adrenal axis
=> Adrenalectomy - Adrenal axis
=> Syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) - Thirst axis
=> Diabetes insipidus - Thirst axis
=> Hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids
=> Primary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids
=> Secondary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids
=> Tertiary hyperparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids
=> Hypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids
=> Pseudohypoparathyroidism - Disorders of the parathyroids
=> Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome
=> Diabetes mellitus type 1
=> Diabetes mellitus type 2
=> Secondary diabetes mellitus
=> Insulin therapy - Diabetes mellitus
=> Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes
=> Diabetic microvascular disease - Complications of diabetes
=> Diabetic nephropathy - Complications of diabetes
=> Diabetic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes
=> Symmetrical peripheral neuropathy - Complications of diabetes
=> Focal and multifocal neuropathy - Complications of diabetes
=> Autonomic neuropathy - Complications of diabetes
=> Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - Complications of diabetes
=> Hyperosmolar, non-ketotic coma (HONK) - Complications of diabetes
=> Hypoglycaemia - Complications of diabetes

Haematology and clinical Immunology


=> Lymphadenopathy and Splenomegaly - Clinical Signs
=> Bleeding tendency - Clinical Signs
=> Full blood count - Investigations and procedures
=> Coagulation screening tests - Investigations and procedures
=> Bone marrow sampling - Investigations and procedures
=> Haemopoeitic progenitor cell transplantation - Investigations and procedures
=> Allergy testing - Investigations and procedures
=> Anaemia
=> Iron deficiency anaemia - Microcytic hypchromic anaemia
=> Sideroblastic anaemia - Microcytic hypchromic anaemia
=> Anaemia of chronic disease - Normocytic anaemia
=> Macrocytic normoblastic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia
=> Megaloblastic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia
=> Vitamin B12 deficiency - Macrocytic anaemia
=> Pernicious anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia
=> Folate deficiency - Macrocytic anaemia
=> Haemolytic anaemia - Macrocytic anaemia
=> Hereditary spherocytosis - Inherited haemolytic anaemia
=> Haemoglobinopathies
=> Sickle cell anaemia
=> α-Thalassaemia
=> β-Thalassaemia
=> Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency - Metabolic defects
=> Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia - Acquired haemolytic anaemia
=> Aplastic anaemia - Acquired haemolytic anaemia
=> Malaria
=> Myelodysplastic syndromes
=> Myeloproliferative diseases
=> Chronic myelogenous leukaemia
=> Polycythaemia vera
=> Myelofibrosis
=> Essential thrombocythaemia
=> Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) - Acute leukaemia
=> Acute myeloid leukaemia - Acute leukaemia
=> Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia - Chronic leukaemia
=> Hodgkin’s disease - Lymphoma
=> Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
=> Multiple myeloma - Paraproteinaemias
=> Waldenstrom macroglobulinaemia - Paraproteinaemias
=> Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) - Paraproteinaemias
=> Haemophilia A - Clotting disorders
=> von Willebrand disease - Clotting disorders
=> Haemophilia B - Clotting disorders
=> Disseminated intravascular coagulation - Clotting disorders
=> Vitamin K deficiency - Clotting disorders
=> Acute immune thrombocytopenia purpura - Clotting disorders
=> Chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura - Clotting disorders
=> Thrombophilia - Thrombotic disorders
=> Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia - Vascular causes of bleeding
=> Transfusion medicine
=> Hypersensitivity reactions - Allergy
=> Urticaria Anaphylaxis - Allergy
=> Hereditary angioedema - Allergy
=> Human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS - HIV
=> Kaposi’s sarcoma - HIV
=> Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) - HIV

Nutritional and metabolic disorders


=> Obesity - Nutritional disorders
=> Malnutrition (including kwashiorkor and marasmus)
=> Hyperlipidaemia
=> Vitamin A deficiency
=> Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency
=> Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency (pellagra)
=> Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency
=> Vitamin C deficiency
=> Amyloidosis - Metabolic disorders
=> Porphyria - Metabolic disorders
=> Hyperhomocysteinaemia - Metabolic disorders

Genetic syndromes


=> Patterns of inheritance - Genetic syndromes
=> Down syndrome - Genetic syndromes: Patterns of inheritance
=> Klinefelter syndrome - Genetic syndromes: Patterns of inheritance
=> Turner syndrome - Genetic syndromes: Patterns of inheritance

Overdose poisoning and addiction


=> Alcohol abuse and dependence
=> Opiate abuse and dependence
=> Cocaine abuse and dependence
=> Amphetamine abuse
=> Ecstasy abuse
=> Overview of acute poisoning - Overdose and poisoning
=> Paracetamol poisoning - Overdose and poisoning
=> Salicylate poisoning - Overdose and poisoning
=> Iron overdose - Overdose and poisoning
=> Tricyclic antidepressant overdose - Overdose and poisoning
=> Lithium overdose - Overdose and poisoning



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