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The usual function of lymph nodes is to allow antigen recognition, proliferation and affinity maturation of mature lymphocytes. They usually become enlarged when active/reactive because of infection. Enlargement of lymph nodes can be localised or generalised (see Table 12.1).
The spleen is not normally palpable on clinical examination. The spleen may by moderately or massively enlarged see Table 12.2.
Hypersplenism occurs when the spleen is functionally overactive and can result from any cause of splenomegaly. It causes pancytopenia and haemolysis.
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