Chemistry

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Chemistry

Chemistry



Inorganic Chemistry

Chemical Calculations


Chemical Calculations : Formula Weight (FW) or Formula Mass
Mole Concept and Molar Mass with Example Problems
Converting Grams of Substances to Moles and Grams with Solved Problems
Calculation of Empirical Formula from Quantitative Analysis and Percentage composition
Stoichiometry Equations
Rules for writing stoichiometric equations
Balancing chemical equation in its molecular form
General Rules for assigning Oxidation Number to an atom
Balancing Redox reaction by Oxidation Number Method
Methods of Expressing the concentration of solution
Volumetric Analysis - Law with Solved problem
Determination of equivalent masses of elements
Equivalent mass of acid, base, salt, oxidising agent and reducing agent
Determination of Molecular Mass Victor-Meyer's Method
Calculations based on Principle of Volumetric Analysis

General Introduction to Metallurgy


Metallurgy - Ores and Minerals
Sources from earth, living systems and in sea
Metallurgy - Purification of ores
Metallurgical processes
Metallurgy - Purification of metals

Atomic Structure I


Rutherford's Scattering Experiment
Defects of Rutherford's model
Postulates of Bohr's model of an atom
Limitation of Bohr's Theory
Electronic configuration and quantum numbers
Shapes or boundary surfaces of Orbitals
Pauli's exclusion principle and Uses
Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity
Aufbau Principle
Stability of orbitals

Periodic Classification I


Brief history of periodic classification
Earlier periodic classification
Modern Periodic Law
IUPAC Nomenclature for Elements with Z greater than 100
Electronic configuration and periodic table
Types of elements: s-, p-,d-, f- Blocks
Atomic and ionic radii
Variation of Ionization Energy in the periodic Table
Factors Influencing Ionization Enthalpy
Electron affinity
Electronegativity
Anomalous periodic properties in terms of screening constant, stability etc.

Group 1 sBlock elements


The structure of the three isotopes of hydrogen
Deuterium: Methods of Preparation, properties and Uses
Tritium - preparation, Properties, Uses
Ortho and Para hydrogen: Conversion and Properties
Heavy water: Preparation, Principle, Properties, Important reactions, Uses
Hydrogen peroxide: Preparation, Properties, reactions, Uses
Liquid hydrogen as a fuel
Alkali Metals: General characteristics, Physical Properties
Lithium : Extraction, Physical and Chemical Properties, Uses
Sodium: Extraction, Physical and Chemical Properties, Uses

Group 2 sBlock elements


Group 2 s - Block Elements
Magnesium: Important Ores, Metallurgy, Properties, Uses
Compounds of alkaline earth metals

pBlock elements


p-Block Elements - General Characteristics
Group 13 - Boron Group (B, Al, Ga, In, Tl): Extraction, Properties
Carbon group elements: properties, Structure, Uses
Structure of Diamond, Graphite, Buckminster fullerenes
Metallic character of Carbon group elements
Nitrogen Group
Nitric acid: Preparation, Properties
Importance of molecular oxygen
Oxygen: Oxides Classification
Ozone: Laboratory preparation, Properties, Uses, structure, layer
Factors affecting ozone layer

Atomic Structure II


Chronology Of Atomic Structure
Dual Property of an Electron
Difference between a particle and a wave
Experiments to prove particle and wave property of Electrons
The Uncertainty Principle
de-Broglie Relation and Significance of de-Broglie waves
The Wave Nature Of Electrons
Shapes of orbitals: s, p, d Shapes
Molecular Orbital Theory: Energy level diagram for molecular orbitals
Electronic configuration of a molecule and its correlation with molecular behaviour
Molecular orbital energy level diagrams -Hydrogen, Hypothetical, Nitrogen, Oxygen
Hybridization : Salient Features, Type, Example
Importance, Strength, Types of Hydrogen bonds - Intermolecular Forces

Periodic Classification II


Review Of Periodic Properties
Calculation Of Atomic Radius (Covalent Radius)
Calculation of ionic radii - Pauling's Method, Slater rules
Factors governing ionization energy
Electron Affinity or Electron gain enthalpy (E.A.)
Factors affecting electron affinity
Electronegativity Scales
Applications of electronegativity

p Block Elements


General characteristics of p-block elements
Electronic configuration of the Boron family elements
Group - 14 Elements - The Carbon Family
Silicones - structure and uses
Metallurgy of Lead: Ores, Properties, Extraction, Purification, Uses
Group - 15 Elements - The Nitrogen Family
Compounds of Phosphorus
Halides of Phosphorus: Phosphorus TrichlorideII. Phosphorus pentachloride - Preparation, properties, Structure
Oxides of phosphorus: Preparation, properties, Structure
Oxy-Acids of Phosphorus: Preparation, properties, Structure
Phosphine - PH3: Preparation, properties, Structure
Group 16 The 'Oxygen' Family
Group 17 - The Halogen Family
Anamalous Nature of Fluorine
Isolation, Physical, Chemical Properties, Uses Of Fluorine
Structures of interhalogen compounds
Group 18 Noble Gases Or Inert Gases
Isolation Of Noble Gases: Ramsay - Raleigh's and Dewar's Method
Uses Of Noble Gas

d Block Elements


Classification and Electronic configuration of d-block Elements
General characteristics of d-block elements
Copper: Occurrence, principles of extraction, Properties and Uses
Chromium: Occurrence, principles of extraction, Properties, Uses and alloys
Zinc: Occurrence, principles of extraction, Properties and Uses
silver: Occurrence, principles of extraction, Properties and Uses
Gold: Occurrence, principles of extraction, Properties and Uses
Extraction from Gold Ores - Mac Arthur Forrest Cyanide Process
Potassium dichromate: Preparation, Properties and Uses
Copper Sulphate or Blue vitriol: Preparation, Properties and Uses
Silver nitrate or Lunar caustic: Preparation, Properties and Uses
Zinc carbonate and Purple of cassius: Preparation, Properties and Uses

f Block Elements


General Characteristics of f-block elements and extraction
General properties of Lanthanides
General Properties of Actinide Series
Comparison of Lanthanides and Actinides
Uses of Lanthanides and actinides
Simple salt and Molecular (or) addition compounds

Coordination Compounds and BioCoordination Compounds


Terminology Used In Coordination Chemistry
IUPAC Nomenclature Of Mononuclear Coordination Compounds
Types of Isomerism: Structural and Stereo isomerism
Theories Of Coordination Compounds: Werner's theory, Valence bond theory
Uses of coordination compounds
Bio Coordination Compounds - aemoglobin, Chlorophyll

Nuclear Chemistry


Nuclear Chemistry - Indroduction
Difference between chemical reactions and nuclear reactions
Type Of Nuclear Reaction
Radiocarbon Dating and Uses
Uses Of Radioactive Isotopes

Physical Chemistry

Solid state I


Crystalline solids and Amorphous solids
Difference between Crystalline and Amorphous Solids
Characteristic parameters and seven classes of unit cell
Miller Indices

Gaseous state I


Properties of gases
The gas laws: Boyle's law and Charle's Law
Numerical values of gas constant (R)
Dalton's law of partial Pressures
Graham's Law of Diffusion
Causes for deviation of real gas from ideal behaviour
Vanderwaal's Equation of state : Units, Significance, Limitations
Gaseous state - Critical phenomena
Joule-Thomson Effect and Inversion temperature (Ti)
Conditions of liquefaction of gases: Linde's Method, Claude's process

Chemical Bonding


Elementary theories on Chemical Bonding
Kossel-Lewis approach to Chemical Bonding
Ionic (or) Electrovalent bond
Lattice energy and Born - Haber's cycle
Determination and Calculation of lattice enthalpy of NaCl
Properties of electrovalent (or) ionic compounds
Covalent bond: Lewis dot structure and Double bond formation
Characteristics of covalent compounds
Fajan's rules: Covalent character of ionic bonds
Polarity of Covalent Bonds
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR) Theory
Directional Properties of Covalent Bonds
Theory of Hybridisation
Chemical Bonding: Concept of Resonance
Co-ordinate-covalent bonding or Dative bonding

Colligative Properties


Colligative Properties and its Scope
Lowering of Vapour Pressure
Raoult's Law and Dynamic method (or) Ostwald - Walker method
Depression of freezing point of dilute solution
Measurement of freezing point depression by Beckmann method
Elevation of boiling point of dilute solutions and Cottrell's Method
Osmosis in solution
Determination of molecular weight and osmotic pressure by Berkley-Hartley method
Abnormal Colligative Properties

Thermodynamics I


Introduction and Terminology used in Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics: State functions of a system
Thermodyanamic processes
Different between Exothermic and endothermic processes
Thermodynamics: Difference between Irreversible and Reversible process
Nature of thermodynamic functions
Zeroth law of thermodynamics or Thermal equilibrium
Thermodynamics: Work, heat and energy
First law of thermodynamics
Relation between enthalpy `H' and internal energy `U'
Thermochemical equations
Enthalpy of combustion - Bomb calorimeter
Enthalpy of neutralisation

Chemical Equilibrium I


Scope and Nature of Chemical Equilibrium
Dynamic Equilibrium: Characteristics, Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes
Law of chemical equilibrium and equilibrium constant with example
Formation of HI from H2 and I2 - Equilibrium constants in terms of degree of dissociation
Dissociation of PCl5 - Equilibrium constants in terms of degree of dissociation
Characteristics of Equilibrium constant
Heterogeneous equilibria

Chemical Kinetics I


Scope of chemical kinetics
Rate of chemical reactions
Factors influencing reaction rates
Chemical Kinetics: Unit of rate constant
Molecularity of the reaction
Classification of rates based on the order of the reaction
Characteristics of organic compounds
Purification of Organic compounds: Crystallisation
Sublimation - Purification of Organic compounds
Methods for the purification of liquids Distillation
Chromatography and Different Chromatographic Techniques

Solid State II


Types of Cubic System
Bragg's Equation and spectrometer method
Types Of Crystals
Imperfections In Solids
Super conductors property of Crystalline solids
Glasses - Amorphous solids

Thermodynamics II


Limitations Of First Law Of Thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
Entropy And Entropy Change
Characteristics of entropy 'S'
Gibbs free energy 'G' and Standard free energy (G?)
Characteristics of Free energy 'G'
Le Chatelier's Principle: Haber's and Contact Process

Chemical Equilibrium II


Le Chatelier's Principle: Haber's and Contact Process
Attainment Of Equilibrium In Chemical Reactions

Chemical Kinetics II


Rate And Order Of A Reaction
Rate equation for first order reactions
Pseudo-First Order Reactions
Determination of rate constant of acid catalysed hydrolysis of an ester
Temperature Dependance Of Rate Constant
Simple And Complex Reactions : Difference and Types

Surface Chemistry


Classification, Factors affecting of adsorption of gases on solids
General characteristics and Types of catalytic reactions
Types of catalysts
Theories Of Catalysis
Colloids and Types of Colloids
Preparation Of Colloids : Dispersion and Condensation method
Purification Methods Of Sols
Properties of Colloids
Natural and Technical Applications Of Colloids
Emulsions and Types of emulsions

Electro Chemistry I


Electro Chemistry: Conductors , Insulators And Semi Conductors
Theory Of Electrolytic Conductance
Postulates of Arrhenius Theory
Evidences of Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation
Ostwald's dilution law for weak electrolytes
Faraday's Laws Of Electrolysis
Electrical Conductance Quantities
Variation Of Equivalent Conductance With Concentration
Kohlraush's Law - Application with example
Ionic Product Of Water : The pH of solutions
Buffer Solutions
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and its Significance
Selection of pH indicators and Titration
Ostwald's theory and Quinonoid Theory

Electro Chemistry II


Electrochemistry - Cells and Daniel cell
Electro Chemistry - Cell Terminology
Single Electrode Potential

Organic Chemistry

Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry


Basic Concepts Of Organic Chemistry - Introduction
Classification of Organic Compounds: open chain, cyclic compounds



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