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Isotopes of hydrogen
Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table. It has the simplest electronic configuration 1s1. It contains one proton in the nucleus and one electron.
Isotopes:- Atoms of the same element having same atomic number but different mass number are called isotopes.
There are three isotopes for hydrogen with mass numbers 1, 2 and 3, each possessing an atomic number of one.
The structure of the three isotopes of hydrogen are
1. Protium or ordinary hydrogen: It is the common form of hydrogen. It consists of one proton in its nucleus and one electron revolving around it. It constitutes 99.984% of total hydrogen available in nature. Its mass number is one.
2. Deuterium or heavy hydrogen: 1H2 or 1D2. It occurs naturally in very small traces. The proportion present in naturally occurring hydrogen is in the approximate ratio: D: H~ 1:6000. It's nucleus consists of a proton and a neutron. However only a solitary electron is revolving around the nucleus. Its chemical properties are similar to those of protium but their reaction rates are different.
3. Tritium, 1H3 or 1T3: It occurs in the upper atmosphere only where it is continuously formed by nuclear reactions induced by cosmic rays. Unlike deuterium, it is radioactive, with a half-life of ~ 12.3 years. It's nucleus consists of one proton and two neutrons.
They will have same similar chemical properties, however, their reaction rates will be different and their physical properties differ appreciably.
Isotopes of hydrogen :
S. Atomic Mass Number of Percentage
No number number Pro- Neu- abundance
1. Protium or 1H1 1 1 1 0 99.984
2. Deuterium 1H2 1 2 1 1 0.016
3. Tritium 1H3 1 3 1 2 10-15
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