"Equal volume of equinormal solutions exactly neutralise the other solution having same concentration and volume".
V1 N1 = V2 N2

**Volumetric Analysis**

An important method for determining the amount
of a particular substance is based on measuring the volume of reactant
solution. Suppose substance A in solution reacts with substance B. If you know
the volume and concentration of a solution of B that just reacts with substance
A in a sample, you can determine the amount of A.

Titration is a procedure for determining the
amount of substance A by adding a carefully measured volume of a solution of A
with known concentration of B untill the reaction of A and B is just completed.
Volumetric analysis is a method of analysis based on titrations.

**Law**

"Equal volume of equinormal solutions exactly neutralise the other
solution having same concentration and volume".

V1 N1 = V2
N2

V1, V2 -
Volume of solutions.

N1, N2 -
Strength of solutions.

**Solved problem**

**Calculating the volume of reactant solution
needed**

**1. What volume of 6M HCl and 2M HCl should be
mixed to get one litre of 3M HCl?**

**Solution**

Suppose the volume of 6M HCl required to obtain 1L of 3M HCl = XL

Volume of 2M HCl
required = (1-x)L

Applying the
molarity equation

M1V1 + + M_{2}V_{2} = = M_{3}V_{3}

6MHCl+ 2MHCl=
3MHCl

6x+2(1-x) =
3x1

6x+2-2x =
3

4x =
1

x =
0.25L

hence, volume of
6M HCl required = 0.25L

Volume of 2M HCl
required = 0.75L

**2. How much volume of 10M HCl should be diluted with
water to prepare 2.00L of 5M HCl.**

**Solution **

N1V1 = N_{2}V_{2}

10N HCl = 5N
HCl

10xV1 = 5 x
2.00

V1 = (5 x 2.00 )/ 10

= 1.00L

**Problems for Practice**

1. NiSO4 reacts with Na3PO4 to give a yellow green precipitate of Ni3(PO4)2
and a solution of Na2SO4.

3NiSO_{4}(aq) + 2Na_{3}PO_{4}(aq) Ni_{3}(PO_{4})_{2 (s)}
+ 3Na_{2}SO_{4}(aq)

How many mL of 0.375M NiSO4 will react with 45.7 mL of 0.265M Na_{3}PO_{4}?

2. What volume of 0.250M HNO_{3} reacts with 42.4 mL of 0.150M
Na_{2}CO_{3} in the following reaction?

2HNO3(aq)
+
Na2CO3(aq) 2NaNO3(aq) + H2O(aq)+CO2(g)

3. A flask contains 53.1 mL of 0.150M Ca(OH)2 solution. How many mL of
0.350M Na_{2}CO_{3} are required to react completely with
Ca(OH)_{2} in the following reaction.

Na2CO3(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq)
CaCO3(aq) + 2NaOH(aq)

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