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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Class Organic Inorganic Physical Chemistry Higher secondary school College Notes

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Uses Of Radioactive Isotopes

USES OF RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES : - Study of reaction mechanism i) Mechanism of photosynthesis in plants i) Study of hydrolysis of ester

USES OF RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES

a) Study of reaction mechanism

i) Mechanism of photosynthesis in plants

 

A small quantity of Radioactive C O 2(iso) containing radioactive oxygen O18 is mixed with ordinary carbondioxide and the process is carried out. It has been found that oxygen gas evolved along with sugar formation is non-radioactive.

Therefore O2 produced comes from water and not from carbondioxide. So the correct mechanism is as follows.

6C O2(iso) + 6H2O  C6H12 O6 + 6O2(iso)

ii)    Study of hydrolysis of ester

By labelling oxygen, the mechanism of ester hydrolysis can be studied by using water labelled with O18. The hydrolysis of an ester by water enriched with radioactive oxygen is indicated as :


Therefore it is the acid and not alcohol produced which is radioactive confirming the above mechanism.

Radioactive isotopes which are useful in medicine

Use

        i.            Measure water content of the body

     ii.            Brain scan

   iii.            Radioimmunology

   iv.            Diagnosis of damaged heart muscles and hyper

     v.            Kidney scan

   vi.            Diagnosis of anemia

vii.            Treatment of cancer

viii.            Location of blood clots and circularity disorders

Gold - 198 Curing of cancers


 

NUCLEAR REACTIONS TAKING PLACE IN SUN (STARS)

It has been estimated that the sun is giving out energy equally in all possible directions at the rate of 3.7 1033 ergs/sec. The energy of the sun is supposed to arise from the fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei which in going on inside it all the time.

The various fusion reactions taking place in the sun are as follows:

 

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