Ophthalmology

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Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology



The Ophthalmic Examination


Ophthalmic Examination: Equipment
Ophthalmic Examination: History
Ophthalmic Examination: Visual Acuity
Ophthalmic Examination: Ocular Motility
Ophthalmic Examination: Binocular Alignment
Examination of the Eyelids and Nasolacrimal Duct
Examination of the Conjunctiva
Examination of the Cornea
Examination of the Anterior Chamber
Examination of the Lens
Confrontation Field Testing
Measurement of Intraocular Pressure
Eyedrops, Ointment, and Bandages

The Eyelids


Eyelids: Basic Knowledge
Eyelids: Examination Methods
Eyelids: Developmental Anomalies
Eyelids: Deformities
Ptosis
Entropion
Ectropion
Trichiasis
Blepharospasm
Disorders of the Skin and Margin of the Eyelid
Contact Eczema
Edema
Seborrheic Blepharitis
Herpes Simplex of the Eyelids
Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus
Eyelid Abscess
Louse Infestation of the Eyelids
Disorders of the Eyelid Glands
Hordeolum
Chalazion
Eyelids: Benign Tumors
Eyelids: Malignant Tumors
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma

Lacrimal System


Lacrimal System: Basic Knowledge
Lacrimal System: Examination Methods
Disorders of the Lower Lacrimal System
Dacryocystitis
Canaliculitis
Tumors of the Lacrimal Sac
Lacrimal System Dysfunction
Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Illacrimation
Disorders of the Lacrimal Gland
Acute Dacryoa
Chronic Dacryoadenitis
Tumors of the Lacrimal Gland

Conjunctiva


Conjunctiva: Basic Knowledge
Conjunctiva: Examination Methods
Conjunctival Degeneration and Aging Changes
Pingueculum
Pterygium
Pseudopterygium
Conjunctival Xerosis
General Notes on the Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis of Conjunctivitis
Infectious Conjunctivitis
Noninfectious Conjunctivitis
Conjunctiva Tumors
Epithelial Conjunctival Tumors
Melanocytic Conjunctival Tumors
Conjunctival Lymphoma
Kaposi's sarcoma
Conjunctival Deposits

Cornea


Cornea: Basic Knowledge
Cornea: Examination Methods
Cornea: Developmental Anomalies
Protrusion Anomalies: Keratoconus, Keratoglobus
Infectious Keratitis
Bacterial Keratitis
Viral Keratitis
Mycotic Keratitis
Acanthamoeba Keratitis
Noninfectious Keratitis and Keratopathy
Superficial Punctate Keratitis
Exposure Keratitis
Neuroparalytic Keratitis
Problems with Contact Lenses
Bullous Keratopathy
Corneal Deposits
Corneal Degeneration
Corneal Dystrophies
Corneal Surgery
Curative Corneal Procedures
Refractive Corneal Procedures

Sclera


Sclera : Basic Knowledge
Sclera : Examination Methods
Sclera : Color Changes
Staphyloma and Ectasia
Sclera : Trauma
Sclera : Inflammations
Episcleritis
Scleritis

Eye Lens


Eye Lens: Basic Knowledge
Eye Lens: Examination Methods
Developmental Anomalies of the Eye Lens
Eye Lens: Cataract
Acquired Cataract : Senile Cataract
Cataract in Systemic Disease
Complicated Cataracts
Cataract after Intraocular Surgery
Traumatic Cataract
Toxic Cataract
Congenital Cataract
Treatment of Cataracts
Eye Lens Dislocation

Uveal Tract Vascular pigmented layer


Uveal Tract (Vascular pigmented layer): Basic Knowledge
Uveal Tract (Vascular pigmented layer): Examination Methods
Uveal Tract: Developmental Anomalies
Pigmentation Anomalies: Heterochromia, Albinism
Inflammation in Uveal Tract (Vascular pigmented layer)
Acute Iritis and Iridocyclitis
Chronic Iritis and Iridocyclitis
Choroiditis
Sympathetic Ophthalmia
Neovascularization in the Iris: Rubeosis Iridis
Malignant Tumors (Uveal Melanoma)
Benign Choroidal Tumors

Pupil


Pupil: Basic Knowledge
Pupil: Examination Methods
Pupillary Motor Dysfunction
Isocoria with Normal Pupil Size
Anisocoria with Dilated Pupil in the Affected Eye
Anisocoria with a Constricted Pupil in the Affected Eye
Isocoria with Constricted Pupils
Isocoria with Dilated Pupils

Glaucoma


Glaucoma: Basic Knowledge
Glaucoma: Examination Methods
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma
Secondary Glaucomas
Secondary Open Angle Glaucoma
Secondary Angle Closure Glaucoma
Childhood Glaucomas

Vitreous Body


Vitreous Body
Vitreous Body: Examination Methods
Vitreous Body: Aging Changes
Persistent Fetal Vasculature (Developmental Anomalies)
Abnormal Opacities of the Vitreous Body
Vitreous Hemorrhage
Vitritis and Endophthalmitis
Vitreoretinal Dystrophies
The Role of the Vitreous Body in Various Ocular Changes and Following Cataract Surgery
Surgical Treatment: Vitrectomy

Retina


Retina
Examination of the Fundus
Normal and Abnormal Fundus Findings in General
Retina: Color Vision
Retina: Electrophysiologic Examination Methods
Diabetic Retinopathy
Retinal Vein Occlusion
Retinal Arterial Occlusion
Hypertensive Retinopathy and Sclerotic Changes
Coatsí Disease
Retinopathy of Prematurity
Retinal Detachment
Degenerative Retinoschisis
Peripheral Retinal Degenerations
Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Degenerative Myopia
Retinal Dystrophies: Macular Dystrophies
Retinal Dystrophies: Retinitis Pigmentosa
Toxic Retinopathy
Retinal Vasculitis - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
Posterior Uveitis Due to Toxoplasmosis - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
AIDS-Related Retinal Disorders - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
Viral Retinitis - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
Retinitis in Lyme Disease - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
Parasitic Retinal Disorders - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
Retinoblastoma
Astrocytoma
Hemangiomas

Optic Nerve


Optic Nerve
Optic Nerve: Examination Methods
Congenital Disorders that Obscure the Margin of the Optic Disk
Acquired Disorders that Obscure the Margin of the Optic Disk
Papilledema
Optic Neuritis
Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION)
Arteriosclerotic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
Infiltrative Optic Disk Edema
Atrophy of the Optic Nerve
Optic Nerve Pits
Optic Disk Coloboma (Morning Glory Disk)
Intraocular Optic Nerve Tumors
Retrobulbar Optic Nerve Tumors

Visual Pathway


Visual Pathway
Visual Pathway: Examination Methods
Disorders of the Visual Pathway
Chiasmal Lesions
Retrochiasmal Lesions

Orbital Cavity


Orbital Cavity
Orbital Cavity: Examination Methods
Orbital Cavity: Developmental Anomalies
Orbital Involvement in Autoimmune Disorders: Graves Disease
Orbital Cellulitis
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
Orbital Pseudotumor
Myositis
Orbital Periostitis
Mucocele and Mycoses (Mucormycosis and Aspergillomycosis)
Pulsating Exophthalmos - Vascular Disorders
Intermittent Exophthalmos - Vascular Disorders
Orbital Hematoma - Vascular Disorders
Orbital Cavity Tumors
Orbital Surgery

Eye Optics and Refractive Errors


Eye Optics and Refractive Errors
Eye Optics and Refractive Errors: Examination Methods
Myopia (Shortsightedness)
Hyperopia (Farsightedness)
Astigmatism
Anisometropia
Impaired Accommodation - Eye Optics and Refractive Errors
Accommodation Spasm
Accommodation Palsy
Eyeglass Lenses - Correction of Refractive Errors
Contact Lenses - Correction of Refractive Errors
Prisms - Correction of Refractive Errors
Magnifying Vision Aids - Correction of Refractive Errors
Aberrations of Lenses and Eyeglasses - Correction of Refractive Errors

Ocular Motility and Strabismus


Ocular Motility and Strabismus
Ocular Motility and Strabismus: Basic Knowledge
Concomitant Strabismus
Forms of Concomitant Strabismus
Diagnosis of Concomitant Strabismus
Therapy of Concomitant Strabismus
Heterophoria
Pseudostrabismus
Ophthalmoplegia and Paralytic Strabismus
Nystagmus

Ocular Trauma


Ocular Trauma: Examination Methods
Classification of Ocular Injuries by Mechanism of Injury
Mechanical Injuries
Eyelid Injury
Injuries to the Lacrimal System
Conjunctival Laceration
Corneal and Conjunctival Foreign Bodies
Corneal Erosion
Blunt Ocular Trauma (Ocular Contusion)
Eye Blow-out Fracture
Eye Open-Globe Injuries
Impalement Injuries of the Orbit
Chemical Injuries in Eye
Eye Injuries Due to Physical Agents
Indirect Ocular Trauma: Purtscherís Retinopathy



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