Ophthalmology

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Ophthalmology

The Ophthalmic Examination


=> Ophthalmic Examination: Equipment
=> Ophthalmic Examination: History
=> Ophthalmic Examination: Visual Acuity
=> Ophthalmic Examination: Ocular Motility
=> Ophthalmic Examination: Binocular Alignment
=> Examination of the Eyelids and Nasolacrimal Duct
=> Examination of the Conjunctiva
=> Examination of the Cornea
=> Examination of the Anterior Chamber
=> Examination of the Lens
=> Confrontation Field Testing
=> Measurement of Intraocular Pressure
=> Eyedrops, Ointment, and Bandages

The Eyelids


=> Eyelids: Basic Knowledge
=> Eyelids: Examination Methods
=> Eyelids: Developmental Anomalies
=> Eyelids: Deformities
=> Ptosis
=> Entropion
=> Ectropion
=> Trichiasis
=> Blepharospasm
=> Disorders of the Skin and Margin of the Eyelid
=> Contact Eczema
=> Edema
=> Seborrheic Blepharitis
=> Herpes Simplex of the Eyelids
=> Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus
=> Eyelid Abscess
=> Louse Infestation of the Eyelids
=> Disorders of the Eyelid Glands
=> Hordeolum
=> Chalazion
=> Eyelids: Benign Tumors
=> Eyelids: Malignant Tumors
=> Basal Cell Carcinoma
=> Squamous Cell Carcinoma
=> Adenocarcinoma

Lacrimal System


=> Lacrimal System: Basic Knowledge
=> Lacrimal System: Examination Methods
=> Disorders of the Lower Lacrimal System
=> Dacryocystitis
=> Canaliculitis
=> Tumors of the Lacrimal Sac
=> Lacrimal System Dysfunction
=> Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
=> Illacrimation
=> Disorders of the Lacrimal Gland
=> Acute Dacryoa
=> Chronic Dacryoadenitis
=> Tumors of the Lacrimal Gland

Conjunctiva


=> Conjunctiva: Basic Knowledge
=> Conjunctiva: Examination Methods
=> Conjunctival Degeneration and Aging Changes
=> Pingueculum
=> Pterygium
=> Pseudopterygium
=> Conjunctival Xerosis
=> General Notes on the Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis of Conjunctivitis
=> Infectious Conjunctivitis
=> Noninfectious Conjunctivitis
=> Conjunctiva Tumors
=> Epithelial Conjunctival Tumors
=> Melanocytic Conjunctival Tumors
=> Conjunctival Lymphoma
=> Kaposi's sarcoma
=> Conjunctival Deposits

Cornea


=> Cornea: Basic Knowledge
=> Cornea: Examination Methods
=> Cornea: Developmental Anomalies
=> Protrusion Anomalies: Keratoconus, Keratoglobus
=> Infectious Keratitis
=> Bacterial Keratitis
=> Viral Keratitis
=> Mycotic Keratitis
=> Acanthamoeba Keratitis
=> Noninfectious Keratitis and Keratopathy
=> Superficial Punctate Keratitis
=> Exposure Keratitis
=> Neuroparalytic Keratitis
=> Problems with Contact Lenses
=> Bullous Keratopathy
=> Corneal Deposits
=> Corneal Degeneration
=> Corneal Dystrophies
=> Corneal Surgery
=> Curative Corneal Procedures
=> Refractive Corneal Procedures

Sclera


=> Sclera : Basic Knowledge
=> Sclera : Examination Methods
=> Sclera : Color Changes
=> Staphyloma and Ectasia
=> Sclera : Trauma
=> Sclera : Inflammations
=> Episcleritis
=> Scleritis

Eye Lens


=> Eye Lens: Basic Knowledge
=> Eye Lens: Examination Methods
=> Developmental Anomalies of the Eye Lens
=> Eye Lens: Cataract
=> Acquired Cataract : Senile Cataract
=> Cataract in Systemic Disease
=> Complicated Cataracts
=> Cataract after Intraocular Surgery
=> Traumatic Cataract
=> Toxic Cataract
=> Congenital Cataract
=> Treatment of Cataracts
=> Eye Lens Dislocation

Uveal Tract Vascular pigmented layer


=> Uveal Tract (Vascular pigmented layer): Basic Knowledge
=> Uveal Tract (Vascular pigmented layer): Examination Methods
=> Uveal Tract: Developmental Anomalies
=> Pigmentation Anomalies: Heterochromia, Albinism
=> Inflammation in Uveal Tract (Vascular pigmented layer)
=> Acute Iritis and Iridocyclitis
=> Chronic Iritis and Iridocyclitis
=> Choroiditis
=> Sympathetic Ophthalmia
=> Neovascularization in the Iris: Rubeosis Iridis
=> Malignant Tumors (Uveal Melanoma)
=> Benign Choroidal Tumors

Pupil


=> Pupil: Basic Knowledge
=> Pupil: Examination Methods
=> Pupillary Motor Dysfunction
=> Isocoria with Normal Pupil Size
=> Anisocoria with Dilated Pupil in the Affected Eye
=> Anisocoria with a Constricted Pupil in the Affected Eye
=> Isocoria with Constricted Pupils
=> Isocoria with Dilated Pupils

Glaucoma


=> Glaucoma: Basic Knowledge
=> Glaucoma: Examination Methods
=> Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
=> Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma
=> Secondary Glaucomas
=> Secondary Open Angle Glaucoma
=> Secondary Angle Closure Glaucoma
=> Childhood Glaucomas

Vitreous Body


=> Vitreous Body
=> Vitreous Body: Examination Methods
=> Vitreous Body: Aging Changes
=> Persistent Fetal Vasculature (Developmental Anomalies)
=> Abnormal Opacities of the Vitreous Body
=> Vitreous Hemorrhage
=> Vitritis and Endophthalmitis
=> Vitreoretinal Dystrophies
=> The Role of the Vitreous Body in Various Ocular Changes and Following Cataract Surgery
=> Surgical Treatment: Vitrectomy

Retina


=> Retina
=> Examination of the Fundus
=> Normal and Abnormal Fundus Findings in General
=> Retina: Color Vision
=> Retina: Electrophysiologic Examination Methods
=> Diabetic Retinopathy
=> Retinal Vein Occlusion
=> Retinal Arterial Occlusion
=> Hypertensive Retinopathy and Sclerotic Changes
=> Coats’ Disease
=> Retinopathy of Prematurity
=> Retinal Detachment
=> Degenerative Retinoschisis
=> Peripheral Retinal Degenerations
=> Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
=> Age-Related Macular Degeneration
=> Degenerative Myopia
=> Retinal Dystrophies: Macular Dystrophies
=> Retinal Dystrophies: Retinitis Pigmentosa
=> Toxic Retinopathy
=> Retinal Vasculitis - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
=> Posterior Uveitis Due to Toxoplasmosis - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
=> AIDS-Related Retinal Disorders - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
=> Viral Retinitis - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
=> Retinitis in Lyme Disease - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
=> Parasitic Retinal Disorders - Retinal Inflammatory Disease
=> Retinoblastoma
=> Astrocytoma
=> Hemangiomas

Optic Nerve


=> Optic Nerve
=> Optic Nerve: Examination Methods
=> Congenital Disorders that Obscure the Margin of the Optic Disk
=> Acquired Disorders that Obscure the Margin of the Optic Disk
=> Papilledema
=> Optic Neuritis
=> Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION)
=> Arteriosclerotic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
=> Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
=> Infiltrative Optic Disk Edema
=> Atrophy of the Optic Nerve
=> Optic Nerve Pits
=> Optic Disk Coloboma (Morning Glory Disk)
=> Intraocular Optic Nerve Tumors
=> Retrobulbar Optic Nerve Tumors

Visual Pathway


=> Visual Pathway
=> Visual Pathway: Examination Methods
=> Disorders of the Visual Pathway
=> Chiasmal Lesions
=> Retrochiasmal Lesions

Orbital Cavity


=> Orbital Cavity
=> Orbital Cavity: Examination Methods
=> Orbital Cavity: Developmental Anomalies
=> Orbital Involvement in Autoimmune Disorders: Graves Disease
=> Orbital Cellulitis
=> Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
=> Orbital Pseudotumor
=> Myositis
=> Orbital Periostitis
=> Mucocele and Mycoses (Mucormycosis and Aspergillomycosis)
=> Pulsating Exophthalmos - Vascular Disorders
=> Intermittent Exophthalmos - Vascular Disorders
=> Orbital Hematoma - Vascular Disorders
=> Orbital Cavity Tumors
=> Orbital Surgery

Eye Optics and Refractive Errors


=> Eye Optics and Refractive Errors
=> Eye Optics and Refractive Errors: Examination Methods
=> Myopia (Shortsightedness)
=> Hyperopia (Farsightedness)
=> Astigmatism
=> Anisometropia
=> Impaired Accommodation - Eye Optics and Refractive Errors
=> Accommodation Spasm
=> Accommodation Palsy
=> Eyeglass Lenses - Correction of Refractive Errors
=> Contact Lenses - Correction of Refractive Errors
=> Prisms - Correction of Refractive Errors
=> Magnifying Vision Aids - Correction of Refractive Errors
=> Aberrations of Lenses and Eyeglasses - Correction of Refractive Errors

Ocular Motility and Strabismus


=> Ocular Motility and Strabismus
=> Ocular Motility and Strabismus: Basic Knowledge
=> Concomitant Strabismus
=> Forms of Concomitant Strabismus
=> Diagnosis of Concomitant Strabismus
=> Therapy of Concomitant Strabismus
=> Heterophoria
=> Pseudostrabismus
=> Ophthalmoplegia and Paralytic Strabismus
=> Nystagmus

Ocular Trauma


=> Ocular Trauma: Examination Methods
=> Classification of Ocular Injuries by Mechanism of Injury
=> Mechanical Injuries
=> Eyelid Injury
=> Injuries to the Lacrimal System
=> Conjunctival Laceration
=> Corneal and Conjunctival Foreign Bodies
=> Corneal Erosion
=> Blunt Ocular Trauma (Ocular Contusion)
=> Eye Blow-out Fracture
=> Eye Open-Globe Injuries
=> Impalement Injuries of the Orbit
=> Chemical Injuries in Eye
=> Eye Injuries Due to Physical Agents
=> Indirect Ocular Trauma: Purtscher’s Retinopathy



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