The Ophthalmic Examination
The basic equipment for the ophthalmic examination includes the following instruments:
❖ Direct ophthalmoscope for examining the fundus (Fig. 1.1).
❖ Focused light (Fig. 1.1) for examining the reaction of the pupil and the ante-rior chamber.
❖ Aspheric lens (Fig. 1.1) for examining the anterior chamber.
❖ Eye chart for testing visual acuity at a distance of 5 meters (20 feet)(Fig. 1.2).
❖ Binocular loupes for removing corneal and conjunctival foreign bodies.
❖ Desmarres eyelid retractor and glass rod or sterile cotton swab for eyelideversion (Fig. 1.3).
Foreign-body needle for removing superficial corneal foreign bodies (Fig. 1.3).
❖ Topical anesthetic (such as oxybuprocaine 0.4% eyedrops) to provide localanesthesia during removal of conjunctival and corneal foreign bodies and superficial anesthesia prior to flushing the conjunctival sac in chemical injuries.
❖ Sterile buffer solution for primary treatment of chemical injuries.
❖ Antibiotic eyedrops for first aid treatment of injuries, sterile eye compresses,and a 1 cm adhesive bandage for protective bandaging.