Medical Immunology

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Medical Immunology

Introduction


=> Historical Overview - Medical Immunology
=> General Concepts - Medical Immunology
=> Cells of the Immune System - Medical Immunology
=> Antigens and Antibodies - Medical Immunology
=> Lymphocytes and Cell-Mediated Immunity
=> Self Versus Nonself Discrimination - Medical Immunology
=> General Overview - Medical Immunology
=> Immunology and Medicine

Cells and Tissues Involved in the Immune Response


=> Cells of the Immune System
=> Lymphoid Tissues and Organs
=> Lymphocyte Traffic

Major Histocompatibility Complex


=> Major Histocompatibility Complex - Medical Immunology
=> Classification, Structure, and Detection of HLA Genes and Gene Products
=> Cellular Distribution of the MHC Antigens
=> Chromosomal Localization and Arrangement of the MHC Genes
=> Genetics of the MHC(Major Histocompatibility Complex)
=> MHC(Major Histocompatibility Complex) Complex and the Immune Response
=> MHC-Disease Associations

The Induction of an Immune Response Antigens Lymphocytes and Accessory Cells


=> Antigenicity and Immunogenicity
=> Antigenic Determinants
=> Characteristics of Immunogenicity
=> Factors Associated With the Induction of an Immune Response
=> Exogenous and Endogenous Antigens
=> T-B Cell Cooperation in Antibody Responses
=> T-Dependent and T-Independent Antigens
=> Induction of the Immune Response
=> Activation of Helper T Lymphocytes
=> Antigen Presentation and Activation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes
=> Stimulation of a B-Lymphocyte Response by a T-Dependent Antigen

Immunoglobulin Structure


=> Immunoglobulin G (IgG): The Prototype Immunoglobulin Molecule
=> Structural and Antigenic Heterogeneity of Heavy and Light Chains
=> Immunoglobulin Regions and Domains
=> The Immunoglobulin Superfamily of Proteins
=> The Antibody-Combining Site
=> Immunoglobulin M: A Polymeric Molecule
=> Immunoglobulin A: A Molecularly Heterogeneous Immunoglobulin
=> The Minor Immunoglobulin Classes: IgD And IgE

Biosynthesis Metabolism and Biological Properties of Immunoglobulins


=> Immunoglobulin Biosynthesis
=> Immunoglobulin Metabolism
=> Biological Properties of Immunoglobulins

Genetics of Immunoglobulins


=> Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangement
=> Genetic Basis of Antibody Diversity
=> Antigenic Determinants of Immunoglobulin Molecules
=> DNA Polymorphisms: RFLPS
=> Allelic Exclusion
=> GM Allotypes and IGG Subclass Concentrations
=> Immunoglobulin Allotypes, Immune Response, and Diseases

Antigen Antibody Reactions


=> General Characteristics of the Antigen-Antibody Reaction
=> Specific Types of Antigen-Antibody Reactions
=> Biological Consequences of the Antigen-Antibody Reaction

The Complement System


=> The Complement System - Medical Immunology
=> The Classical Complement Pathway - Medical Immunology
=> The Alternative Complement Pathway
=> Activation and Inactivation of C3
=> Few Complement-Activation Pathways
=> Complement Receptors in Human Cell Membranes
=> Pathological Situations Associated With Exaggerated Complement Activation
=> Complement Levels in Disease
=> Microbial Anticomplementary Mechanisms

Lymphocyte Ontogeny and Membrane Markers


=> Lymphocyte Ontogeny and Membrane Markers
=> Approaches to the Study of Lymphocyte Diversity and Ontogeny
=> Major Steps in the Differentiation of T And B Lymphocytes
=> B Lymphocyte Ontogeny
=> T-Lymphocyte Ontogeny
=> Natural Killer Cells
=> Dendritic Cells

Cell Mediated Immunity


=> T-Cell Activation
=> Inactivation of T-Cell Responses
=> T-Helper-Cell Subsets and their Regulatory Roles
=> The Role of Helper T Cells in Inflammatory Responses
=> T-Cell Help and the Humoral Immune Response
=> Activation and Differentiation of Cd8+ Cytotoxic T Cells
=> Activation and Function of Natural Killer Cells
=> Regulatory Cells and the Immune Response

The Humoral Immune Response and Its Induction by Active Immunization


=> Overview of the Induction of a Humoral Immune Response to an Immunogen
=> The Primary Immune Response
=> The Secondary or Anamnestic Response
=> The Fate of Antigens on the Primary and Secondary Responses
=> The Mucosal Humoral Immune Response
=> Immunization
=> Types of Vaccines

Phagocytic Cells


=> Physiology of the Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes
=> Physiology of the Monocyte/Macrophage
=> Laboratory Evaluation of Phagocytic Function

Infections and Immunity


=> Nonspecific Anti-Infectious Defense Mechanisms
=> Natural Antibodies
=> The Protective Role of Antibodies
=> The Protective Role of Cell-Mediated Immunity
=> Immune Deficiency Syndromes as Models For Study Of Immune Defenses Against Infections in Humans
=> Escape From the Immune Response
=> Abnormal Consequences of the Immune Response
=> Epilogue

Diagnostic Immunology


=> General Principles of Immunoserology
=> Precipitation Assays - Immunoserology
=> Assay Methods Based on Agglutination - Immunoserology
=> Tests Based on Complement Fixation - Immunoserology
=> Tests Based on Immunofluorescence
=> Radioimmunoassay
=> Enzyme Immunoassay
=> Laboratory Tests for Assessment of Phagocytic Cell Function
=> Laboratory Tests For Assessment of Lymphocyte Function

Tolerance and Autoimmunity


=> Historical Introduction - Tolerance and Autoimmunity
=> Definition and General Characteristics of Tolerance
=> Acquired Tolerance; Tolerogenic Conditions
=> Experimental Approaches to the Definition of the Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Tolerance
=> T-Lymphocyte Tolerance Models
=> Downregulation of the Immune Response
=> Termination of Tolerance
=> Autoimmunity
=> Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Diseases
=> Pathogenic Factors Involved in the Onset of Autoimmune Diseases
=> Animal Models of Autoimmunity
=> Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases

Organ Specific Autoimmune Diseases


=> Autoimmune Diseases of the Thyroid Gland
=> Addison’s Disease (Chronic Primary Hypoadrenalism)
=> Autoimmune Diseases of the Pancreas
=> Autoimmune Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver
=> Autoimmune Diseases of the Neuromuscular Systems
=> Autoimmune Diseases of the Blood Cells

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus


=> Clinical Manifestations - Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
=> Immunological Abnormalities in SLE(Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
=> Pathogenesis of SLE(Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
=> Treatment - Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Rheumatoid Arthritis


=> Clinical and Pathological Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis
=> Autoantibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis
=> Rheumatoid Factor and Anti-immunoglobulin Antibodies
=> Genetic Factors in Rheumatoid Arthritis
=> Cell-Mediated Immunity Abnormalities in Rheumatoid Arthritis
=> Overview of Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis
=> Therapy - Rheumatoid Arthritis

Hypersensitivity Reactions


=> Hypersensitivity Reactions: Introduction
=> Type I Hypersensitivity Reactions (IGE-Mediated Hypersensitivity, Immediate Hypersensitivity)
=> Cytotoxic Reactions (Type Ii Hypersensitivity)
=> Immune Complex–Induced Hypersensitivity Reactions (Type III Hypersensitivity)
=> Delayed (Type IV) Hypersensitivity Reactions

IgE Mediated Immediate Hypersensitivity


=> Major Clinical Expressions - IgE-Mediated (Immediate) Hypersensitivity
=> Pathogenesis - IgE Mediated (Immediate) Hypersensitivity
=> IgE Antibodies
=> The IgE Antibody Response
=> Genetic Control of IgE Synthesis
=> Interaction of IgE with Cell Surface Receptors
=> Early and Late Phases in Type I Hypersensitivity
=> Prevention and Therapy - IgE-Mediated (Immediate) Hypersensitivity

Immunohematology


=> Introduction: Blood Groups - Immunohematology
=> Serological Principles of Blood Transfusion
=> Blood Transfusion Reactions
=> Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)
=> Immune Hemolytic Anemias

Immune Complex Diseases


=> Immune Complex Diseases
=> Physiopathology of Immune Complex Disease
=> Host Factors that Influence the Development of Immune Complex Disease
=> Detection of Soluble Immune Complexes
=> The Role of Immune Complexes in Human Disease
=> Therapeutic Approaches to Immune Complex Disease

Immune System Modulators


=> Immune System Modulators: Introduction
=> Immunosuppression: Introduction
=> Immunosuppressive Drugs: Pharmacological and Immunological Aspects
=> Use of Immunosuppressive Drugs in Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune Diseases
=> Adverse Consequences of Prolonged Immunosuppression
=> Cytokine Modifiers
=> Immunopotentiation

Transplantation Immunology


=> Transplantation Immunology: Introduction
=> Donor-Recipient Matching - Transplantation Immunology
=> Graft Rejection - Transplantation Immunology
=> Immunosuppression - Transplantation Immunology
=> Graft-Versus-Host Reaction - Transplantation Immunology

Tumor Immunology


=> Tumor Immunology: Introduction
=> Immunogenicity of Tumors
=> Effector Mechanisms in Cancer Immunity
=> Factors Affecting Tumor Immunogenicity
=> Immunotherapy

Malignancies of the Immune System


=> B-Cell Dyscrasias
=> Physiopathology of B-Cell Dyscrasias
=> Clinical Presentations of B-Cell Dyscrasias
=> Leukemias and Lymphomas
=> Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
=> Hairy Cell Leukemia
=> Acute Lymphocytic Leukemias

Diagnosis of Immunodeficiency Diseases


=> Diagnosis of Immunodeficiency Diseases: Introduction
=> Diagnostic Studies - Diagnosis of Immunodeficiency Diseases
=> Diagnostic Evaluation of Humoral Immunity
=> Diagnostic Evaluation of Cell-Mediated Immunity
=> Diagnostic Evaluation of Phagocytic Cell Function
=> Diagnostic Evaluation of Complement Function

Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases


=> Humoral Immunodeficiencies
=> Infantile Agammaglobulinemia (Bruton-Janeway Syndrome)
=> Common, Variable, Unclassified Immunodeficiency (“Acquired” Hypogammaglobulinemia)
=> Selective Immunoglobulin A Deficiency
=> X-Linked Hyper-IgM Syndrome
=> Antigen-Selective Immune Deficiencies
=> Cellular Immunodeficiencies
=> Severe, Combined Immunodeficiency
=> Other Forms of Combined Immune Deficiency
=> Phagocytic Cell Deficiencies
=> Complement Deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiency Diseases


=> Secondary Immunodeficiencies
=> The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
=> General Characteristics of HIV
=> Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
=> HIV and the Immune System
=> Natural History of an HIV Infection
=> Clinical Stages of HIV Infection
=> Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
=> Serological Diagnosis of HIV Infection
=> Therapy - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
=> Immunoprophylaxis - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome



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