Medical Immunology

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Medical Immunology

Medical Immunology



Introduction


Historical Overview - Medical Immunology
General Concepts - Medical Immunology
Cells of the Immune System - Medical Immunology
Antigens and Antibodies - Medical Immunology
Lymphocytes and Cell-Mediated Immunity
Self Versus Nonself Discrimination - Medical Immunology
General Overview - Medical Immunology
Immunology and Medicine

Cells and Tissues Involved in the Immune Response


Cells of the Immune System
Lymphoid Tissues and Organs
Lymphocyte Traffic

Major Histocompatibility Complex


Major Histocompatibility Complex - Medical Immunology
Classification, Structure, and Detection of HLA Genes and Gene Products
Cellular Distribution of the MHC Antigens
Chromosomal Localization and Arrangement of the MHC Genes
Genetics of the MHC(Major Histocompatibility Complex)
MHC(Major Histocompatibility Complex) Complex and the Immune Response
MHC-Disease Associations

The Induction of an Immune Response Antigens Lymphocytes and Accessory Cells


Antigenicity and Immunogenicity
Antigenic Determinants
Characteristics of Immunogenicity
Factors Associated With the Induction of an Immune Response
Exogenous and Endogenous Antigens
T-B Cell Cooperation in Antibody Responses
T-Dependent and T-Independent Antigens
Induction of the Immune Response
Activation of Helper T Lymphocytes
Antigen Presentation and Activation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes
Stimulation of a B-Lymphocyte Response by a T-Dependent Antigen

Immunoglobulin Structure


Immunoglobulin G (IgG): The Prototype Immunoglobulin Molecule
Structural and Antigenic Heterogeneity of Heavy and Light Chains
Immunoglobulin Regions and Domains
The Immunoglobulin Superfamily of Proteins
The Antibody-Combining Site
Immunoglobulin M: A Polymeric Molecule
Immunoglobulin A: A Molecularly Heterogeneous Immunoglobulin
The Minor Immunoglobulin Classes: IgD And IgE

Biosynthesis Metabolism and Biological Properties of Immunoglobulins


Immunoglobulin Biosynthesis
Immunoglobulin Metabolism
Biological Properties of Immunoglobulins

Genetics of Immunoglobulins


Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangement
Genetic Basis of Antibody Diversity
Antigenic Determinants of Immunoglobulin Molecules
DNA Polymorphisms: RFLPS
Allelic Exclusion
GM Allotypes and IGG Subclass Concentrations
Immunoglobulin Allotypes, Immune Response, and Diseases

Antigen Antibody Reactions


General Characteristics of the Antigen-Antibody Reaction
Specific Types of Antigen-Antibody Reactions
Biological Consequences of the Antigen-Antibody Reaction

The Complement System


The Complement System - Medical Immunology
The Classical Complement Pathway - Medical Immunology
The Alternative Complement Pathway
Activation and Inactivation of C3
Few Complement-Activation Pathways
Complement Receptors in Human Cell Membranes
Pathological Situations Associated With Exaggerated Complement Activation
Complement Levels in Disease
Microbial Anticomplementary Mechanisms

Lymphocyte Ontogeny and Membrane Markers


Lymphocyte Ontogeny and Membrane Markers
Approaches to the Study of Lymphocyte Diversity and Ontogeny
Major Steps in the Differentiation of T And B Lymphocytes
B Lymphocyte Ontogeny
T-Lymphocyte Ontogeny
Natural Killer Cells
Dendritic Cells

Cell Mediated Immunity


T-Cell Activation
Inactivation of T-Cell Responses
T-Helper-Cell Subsets and their Regulatory Roles
The Role of Helper T Cells in Inflammatory Responses
T-Cell Help and the Humoral Immune Response
Activation and Differentiation of Cd8+ Cytotoxic T Cells
Activation and Function of Natural Killer Cells
Regulatory Cells and the Immune Response

The Humoral Immune Response and Its Induction by Active Immunization


Overview of the Induction of a Humoral Immune Response to an Immunogen
The Primary Immune Response
The Secondary or Anamnestic Response
The Fate of Antigens on the Primary and Secondary Responses
The Mucosal Humoral Immune Response
Immunization
Types of Vaccines

Phagocytic Cells


Physiology of the Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes
Physiology of the Monocyte/Macrophage
Laboratory Evaluation of Phagocytic Function

Infections and Immunity


Nonspecific Anti-Infectious Defense Mechanisms
Natural Antibodies
The Protective Role of Antibodies
The Protective Role of Cell-Mediated Immunity
Immune Deficiency Syndromes as Models For Study Of Immune Defenses Against Infections in Humans
Escape From the Immune Response
Abnormal Consequences of the Immune Response
Epilogue

Diagnostic Immunology


General Principles of Immunoserology
Precipitation Assays - Immunoserology
Assay Methods Based on Agglutination - Immunoserology
Tests Based on Complement Fixation - Immunoserology
Tests Based on Immunofluorescence
Radioimmunoassay
Enzyme Immunoassay
Laboratory Tests for Assessment of Phagocytic Cell Function
Laboratory Tests For Assessment of Lymphocyte Function

Tolerance and Autoimmunity


Historical Introduction - Tolerance and Autoimmunity
Definition and General Characteristics of Tolerance
Acquired Tolerance; Tolerogenic Conditions
Experimental Approaches to the Definition of the Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Tolerance
T-Lymphocyte Tolerance Models
Downregulation of the Immune Response
Termination of Tolerance
Autoimmunity
Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Diseases
Pathogenic Factors Involved in the Onset of Autoimmune Diseases
Animal Models of Autoimmunity
Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases

Organ Specific Autoimmune Diseases


Autoimmune Diseases of the Thyroid Gland
Addison’s Disease (Chronic Primary Hypoadrenalism)
Autoimmune Diseases of the Pancreas
Autoimmune Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver
Autoimmune Diseases of the Neuromuscular Systems
Autoimmune Diseases of the Blood Cells

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus


Clinical Manifestations - Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Immunological Abnormalities in SLE(Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
Pathogenesis of SLE(Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
Treatment - Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Rheumatoid Arthritis


Clinical and Pathological Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Autoantibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid Factor and Anti-immunoglobulin Antibodies
Genetic Factors in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Cell-Mediated Immunity Abnormalities in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Overview of Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Therapy - Rheumatoid Arthritis

Hypersensitivity Reactions


Hypersensitivity Reactions: Introduction
Type I Hypersensitivity Reactions (IGE-Mediated Hypersensitivity, Immediate Hypersensitivity)
Cytotoxic Reactions (Type Ii Hypersensitivity)
Immune Complex–Induced Hypersensitivity Reactions (Type III Hypersensitivity)
Delayed (Type IV) Hypersensitivity Reactions

IgE Mediated Immediate Hypersensitivity


Major Clinical Expressions - IgE-Mediated (Immediate) Hypersensitivity
Pathogenesis - IgE Mediated (Immediate) Hypersensitivity
IgE Antibodies
The IgE Antibody Response
Genetic Control of IgE Synthesis
Interaction of IgE with Cell Surface Receptors
Early and Late Phases in Type I Hypersensitivity
Prevention and Therapy - IgE-Mediated (Immediate) Hypersensitivity

Immunohematology


Introduction: Blood Groups - Immunohematology
Serological Principles of Blood Transfusion
Blood Transfusion Reactions
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)
Immune Hemolytic Anemias

Immune Complex Diseases


Immune Complex Diseases
Physiopathology of Immune Complex Disease
Host Factors that Influence the Development of Immune Complex Disease
Detection of Soluble Immune Complexes
The Role of Immune Complexes in Human Disease
Therapeutic Approaches to Immune Complex Disease

Immune System Modulators


Immune System Modulators: Introduction
Immunosuppression: Introduction
Immunosuppressive Drugs: Pharmacological and Immunological Aspects
Use of Immunosuppressive Drugs in Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune Diseases
Adverse Consequences of Prolonged Immunosuppression
Cytokine Modifiers
Immunopotentiation

Transplantation Immunology


Transplantation Immunology: Introduction
Donor-Recipient Matching - Transplantation Immunology
Graft Rejection - Transplantation Immunology
Immunosuppression - Transplantation Immunology
Graft-Versus-Host Reaction - Transplantation Immunology

Tumor Immunology


Tumor Immunology: Introduction
Immunogenicity of Tumors
Effector Mechanisms in Cancer Immunity
Factors Affecting Tumor Immunogenicity
Immunotherapy

Malignancies of the Immune System


B-Cell Dyscrasias
Physiopathology of B-Cell Dyscrasias
Clinical Presentations of B-Cell Dyscrasias
Leukemias and Lymphomas
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Hairy Cell Leukemia
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemias

Diagnosis of Immunodeficiency Diseases


Diagnosis of Immunodeficiency Diseases: Introduction
Diagnostic Studies - Diagnosis of Immunodeficiency Diseases
Diagnostic Evaluation of Humoral Immunity
Diagnostic Evaluation of Cell-Mediated Immunity
Diagnostic Evaluation of Phagocytic Cell Function
Diagnostic Evaluation of Complement Function

Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases


Humoral Immunodeficiencies
Infantile Agammaglobulinemia (Bruton-Janeway Syndrome)
Common, Variable, Unclassified Immunodeficiency (“Acquired” Hypogammaglobulinemia)
Selective Immunoglobulin A Deficiency
X-Linked Hyper-IgM Syndrome
Antigen-Selective Immune Deficiencies
Cellular Immunodeficiencies
Severe, Combined Immunodeficiency
Other Forms of Combined Immune Deficiency
Phagocytic Cell Deficiencies
Complement Deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiency Diseases


Secondary Immunodeficiencies
The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
General Characteristics of HIV
Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
HIV and the Immune System
Natural History of an HIV Infection
Clinical Stages of HIV Infection
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Serological Diagnosis of HIV Infection
Therapy - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Immunoprophylaxis - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome



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