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Medical Immunology -

Medical Immunology

Introduction


-:- Historical Overview - Medical Immunology
-:- General Concepts - Medical Immunology
-:- Cells of the Immune System - Medical Immunology
-:- Antigens and Antibodies - Medical Immunology
-:- Lymphocytes and Cell-Mediated Immunity
-:- Self Versus Nonself Discrimination - Medical Immunology
-:- General Overview - Medical Immunology
-:- Immunology and Medicine

Cells and Tissues Involved in the Immune Response


-:- Cells of the Immune System
-:- Lymphoid Tissues and Organs
-:- Lymphocyte Traffic

Major Histocompatibility Complex


-:- Major Histocompatibility Complex - Medical Immunology
-:- Classification, Structure, and Detection of HLA Genes and Gene Products
-:- Cellular Distribution of the MHC Antigens
-:- Chromosomal Localization and Arrangement of the MHC Genes
-:- Genetics of the MHC(Major Histocompatibility Complex)
-:- MHC(Major Histocompatibility Complex) Complex and the Immune Response
-:- MHC-Disease Associations

The Induction of an Immune Response Antigens Lymphocytes and Accessory Cells


-:- Antigenicity and Immunogenicity
-:- Antigenic Determinants
-:- Characteristics of Immunogenicity
-:- Factors Associated With the Induction of an Immune Response
-:- Exogenous and Endogenous Antigens
-:- T-B Cell Cooperation in Antibody Responses
-:- T-Dependent and T-Independent Antigens
-:- Induction of the Immune Response
-:- Activation of Helper T Lymphocytes
-:- Antigen Presentation and Activation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes
-:- Stimulation of a B-Lymphocyte Response by a T-Dependent Antigen

Immunoglobulin Structure


-:- Immunoglobulin G (IgG): The Prototype Immunoglobulin Molecule
-:- Structural and Antigenic Heterogeneity of Heavy and Light Chains
-:- Immunoglobulin Regions and Domains
-:- The Immunoglobulin Superfamily of Proteins
-:- The Antibody-Combining Site
-:- Immunoglobulin M: A Polymeric Molecule
-:- Immunoglobulin A: A Molecularly Heterogeneous Immunoglobulin
-:- The Minor Immunoglobulin Classes: IgD And IgE

Biosynthesis Metabolism and Biological Properties of Immunoglobulins


-:- Immunoglobulin Biosynthesis
-:- Immunoglobulin Metabolism
-:- Biological Properties of Immunoglobulins

Genetics of Immunoglobulins


-:- Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangement
-:- Genetic Basis of Antibody Diversity
-:- Antigenic Determinants of Immunoglobulin Molecules
-:- DNA Polymorphisms: RFLPS
-:- Allelic Exclusion
-:- GM Allotypes and IGG Subclass Concentrations
-:- Immunoglobulin Allotypes, Immune Response, and Diseases

Antigen Antibody Reactions


-:- General Characteristics of the Antigen-Antibody Reaction
-:- Specific Types of Antigen-Antibody Reactions
-:- Biological Consequences of the Antigen-Antibody Reaction

The Complement System


-:- The Complement System - Medical Immunology
-:- The Classical Complement Pathway - Medical Immunology
-:- The Alternative Complement Pathway
-:- Activation and Inactivation of C3
-:- Few Complement-Activation Pathways
-:- Complement Receptors in Human Cell Membranes
-:- Pathological Situations Associated With Exaggerated Complement Activation
-:- Complement Levels in Disease
-:- Microbial Anticomplementary Mechanisms

Lymphocyte Ontogeny and Membrane Markers


-:- Lymphocyte Ontogeny and Membrane Markers
-:- Approaches to the Study of Lymphocyte Diversity and Ontogeny
-:- Major Steps in the Differentiation of T And B Lymphocytes
-:- B Lymphocyte Ontogeny
-:- T-Lymphocyte Ontogeny
-:- Natural Killer Cells
-:- Dendritic Cells

Cell Mediated Immunity


-:- T-Cell Activation
-:- Inactivation of T-Cell Responses
-:- T-Helper-Cell Subsets and their Regulatory Roles
-:- The Role of Helper T Cells in Inflammatory Responses
-:- T-Cell Help and the Humoral Immune Response
-:- Activation and Differentiation of Cd8+ Cytotoxic T Cells
-:- Activation and Function of Natural Killer Cells
-:- Regulatory Cells and the Immune Response

The Humoral Immune Response and Its Induction by Active Immunization


-:- Overview of the Induction of a Humoral Immune Response to an Immunogen
-:- The Primary Immune Response
-:- The Secondary or Anamnestic Response
-:- The Fate of Antigens on the Primary and Secondary Responses
-:- The Mucosal Humoral Immune Response
-:- Immunization
-:- Types of Vaccines

Phagocytic Cells


-:- Physiology of the Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes
-:- Physiology of the Monocyte/Macrophage
-:- Laboratory Evaluation of Phagocytic Function

Infections and Immunity


-:- Nonspecific Anti-Infectious Defense Mechanisms
-:- Natural Antibodies
-:- The Protective Role of Antibodies
-:- The Protective Role of Cell-Mediated Immunity
-:- Immune Deficiency Syndromes as Models For Study Of Immune Defenses Against Infections in Humans
-:- Escape From the Immune Response
-:- Abnormal Consequences of the Immune Response
-:- Epilogue

Diagnostic Immunology


-:- General Principles of Immunoserology
-:- Precipitation Assays - Immunoserology
-:- Assay Methods Based on Agglutination - Immunoserology
-:- Tests Based on Complement Fixation - Immunoserology
-:- Tests Based on Immunofluorescence
-:- Radioimmunoassay
-:- Enzyme Immunoassay
-:- Laboratory Tests for Assessment of Phagocytic Cell Function
-:- Laboratory Tests For Assessment of Lymphocyte Function

Tolerance and Autoimmunity


-:- Historical Introduction - Tolerance and Autoimmunity
-:- Definition and General Characteristics of Tolerance
-:- Acquired Tolerance; Tolerogenic Conditions
-:- Experimental Approaches to the Definition of the Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Tolerance
-:- T-Lymphocyte Tolerance Models
-:- Downregulation of the Immune Response
-:- Termination of Tolerance
-:- Autoimmunity
-:- Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Diseases
-:- Pathogenic Factors Involved in the Onset of Autoimmune Diseases
-:- Animal Models of Autoimmunity
-:- Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases

Organ Specific Autoimmune Diseases


-:- Autoimmune Diseases of the Thyroid Gland
-:- Addison’s Disease (Chronic Primary Hypoadrenalism)
-:- Autoimmune Diseases of the Pancreas
-:- Autoimmune Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Liver
-:- Autoimmune Diseases of the Neuromuscular Systems
-:- Autoimmune Diseases of the Blood Cells

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus


-:- Clinical Manifestations - Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
-:- Immunological Abnormalities in SLE(Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
-:- Pathogenesis of SLE(Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)
-:- Treatment - Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Rheumatoid Arthritis


-:- Clinical and Pathological Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis
-:- Autoantibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis
-:- Rheumatoid Factor and Anti-immunoglobulin Antibodies
-:- Genetic Factors in Rheumatoid Arthritis
-:- Cell-Mediated Immunity Abnormalities in Rheumatoid Arthritis
-:- Overview of Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis
-:- Therapy - Rheumatoid Arthritis

Hypersensitivity Reactions


-:- Hypersensitivity Reactions: Introduction
-:- Type I Hypersensitivity Reactions (IGE-Mediated Hypersensitivity, Immediate Hypersensitivity)
-:- Cytotoxic Reactions (Type Ii Hypersensitivity)
-:- Immune Complex–Induced Hypersensitivity Reactions (Type III Hypersensitivity)
-:- Delayed (Type IV) Hypersensitivity Reactions

IgE Mediated Immediate Hypersensitivity


-:- Major Clinical Expressions - IgE-Mediated (Immediate) Hypersensitivity
-:- Pathogenesis - IgE Mediated (Immediate) Hypersensitivity
-:- IgE Antibodies
-:- The IgE Antibody Response
-:- Genetic Control of IgE Synthesis
-:- Interaction of IgE with Cell Surface Receptors
-:- Early and Late Phases in Type I Hypersensitivity
-:- Prevention and Therapy - IgE-Mediated (Immediate) Hypersensitivity

Immunohematology


-:- Introduction: Blood Groups - Immunohematology
-:- Serological Principles of Blood Transfusion
-:- Blood Transfusion Reactions
-:- Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (Erythroblastosis Fetalis)
-:- Immune Hemolytic Anemias

Immune Complex Diseases


-:- Immune Complex Diseases
-:- Physiopathology of Immune Complex Disease
-:- Host Factors that Influence the Development of Immune Complex Disease
-:- Detection of Soluble Immune Complexes
-:- The Role of Immune Complexes in Human Disease
-:- Therapeutic Approaches to Immune Complex Disease

Immune System Modulators


-:- Immune System Modulators: Introduction
-:- Immunosuppression: Introduction
-:- Immunosuppressive Drugs: Pharmacological and Immunological Aspects
-:- Use of Immunosuppressive Drugs in Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune Diseases
-:- Adverse Consequences of Prolonged Immunosuppression
-:- Cytokine Modifiers
-:- Immunopotentiation

Transplantation Immunology


-:- Transplantation Immunology: Introduction
-:- Donor-Recipient Matching - Transplantation Immunology
-:- Graft Rejection - Transplantation Immunology
-:- Immunosuppression - Transplantation Immunology
-:- Graft-Versus-Host Reaction - Transplantation Immunology

Tumor Immunology


-:- Tumor Immunology: Introduction
-:- Immunogenicity of Tumors
-:- Effector Mechanisms in Cancer Immunity
-:- Factors Affecting Tumor Immunogenicity
-:- Immunotherapy

Malignancies of the Immune System


-:- B-Cell Dyscrasias
-:- Physiopathology of B-Cell Dyscrasias
-:- Clinical Presentations of B-Cell Dyscrasias
-:- Leukemias and Lymphomas
-:- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
-:- Hairy Cell Leukemia
-:- Acute Lymphocytic Leukemias

Diagnosis of Immunodeficiency Diseases


-:- Diagnosis of Immunodeficiency Diseases: Introduction
-:- Diagnostic Studies - Diagnosis of Immunodeficiency Diseases
-:- Diagnostic Evaluation of Humoral Immunity
-:- Diagnostic Evaluation of Cell-Mediated Immunity
-:- Diagnostic Evaluation of Phagocytic Cell Function
-:- Diagnostic Evaluation of Complement Function

Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases


-:- Humoral Immunodeficiencies
-:- Infantile Agammaglobulinemia (Bruton-Janeway Syndrome)
-:- Common, Variable, Unclassified Immunodeficiency (“Acquired” Hypogammaglobulinemia)
-:- Selective Immunoglobulin A Deficiency
-:- X-Linked Hyper-IgM Syndrome
-:- Antigen-Selective Immune Deficiencies
-:- Cellular Immunodeficiencies
-:- Severe, Combined Immunodeficiency
-:- Other Forms of Combined Immune Deficiency
-:- Phagocytic Cell Deficiencies
-:- Complement Deficiencies - Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiency Diseases


-:- Secondary Immunodeficiencies
-:- The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
-:- General Characteristics of HIV
-:- Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS
-:- HIV and the Immune System
-:- Natural History of an HIV Infection
-:- Clinical Stages of HIV Infection
-:- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
-:- Serological Diagnosis of HIV Infection
-:- Therapy - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
-:- Immunoprophylaxis - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman

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