Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology

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Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology

Organization and General Plan of the Body


=> Organization and General Plan of the Body
=> Levels of Organization
=> Metabolism and Homeostasis
=> Terminology and General Plan of the Body

Some Basic Chemistry


=> Elements
=> Atoms
=> Chemical Bonds
=> Chemical Reactions
=> Inorganic Compounds of Importance
=> Organic Compounds of Importance
=> Carbohydrates
=> Lipids
=> Proteins
=> Enzymes
=> Nucleic Acids

Cells


=> Cells
=> Cell Structure
=> Cell Membrane
=> Nucleus - Cells
=> Cytoplasm and Cell Organelles
=> Cellular Transport Mechanisms
=> The Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis
=> Cell Division
=> Aging and Cells

Tissues and Membranes


=> Epithelial Tissue
=> Connective Tissue
=> Muscle Tissue
=> Nerve Tissue
=> Membranes: Epithelial and Connective, serous and mucous Membranes
=> Aging and Tissues

The Integumentary System


=> Skin - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Outer epidermis - Skin
=> Inner dermis - Skin
=> Subcutaneous Tissue
=> Aging and the Integumentary System

The Skeletal System


=> Skeletal System
=> Functions of the Skeleton
=> Types of Bone Tissue
=> Classification of Bones
=> Embryonic Growth of Bone
=> Factors That Affect Bone Growth and Maintenance
=> The Skeleton
=> Skull - Skeleton
=> Vertebral Column - Skeleton
=> Rib Cage - Skeleton
=> Shoulder And Arm - Skeleton
=> Hip and Leg - Skeleton
=> Joints-Articulations
=> Aging and the Skeletal System

The Muscular System


=> The Muscular System
=> Muscle Structure
=> Muscle Tone
=> Muscle Sense
=> Energy Sources for Muscle Contraction
=> Muscle Fiber- Microscopic Structure
=> Contraction-The Sliding Filament Mechanism
=> Responses to Exercise-Maintaining Homeostasis
=> Aging and the Muscular System
=> Major Muscles of the Body

The Nervous System


=> The Nervous System
=> Nervous System Divisions
=> Nerve Tissue
=> Types of Neurons
=> Nerves and Nerve Tracts
=> The Nerve Impulse
=> Spinal Cord
=> Spinal Nerves
=> Spinal Cord Reflexes
=> The Brain - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid
=> Cranial Nerves
=> Autonomic Nervous System
=> Aging and the Nervous System

The Senses


=> Sensory Pathway
=> Characteristics of Sensations
=> Cutaneous Senses
=> Muscle Sense
=> Sense of Taste
=> Sense of Smell
=> Hunger and Thirst
=> The Eye - Structure, Anatomy and Physiology
=> Eyeball: Layers and Cavities of the Eyeball
=> Physiology of Vision - Eye
=> The Ear: Anatomy and Physiology
=> Arterial Receptors
=> Aging and the Senses

The Endocrine System


=> The Endocrine System
=> Chemistry of Hormones
=> Regulation of Hormone Secretion
=> The Pituitary Gland - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Posterior Pituitary Gland
=> Anterior Pituitary Gland
=> Thyroid Gland - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Parathyroid Glands and Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
=> Pancreas - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Adrenal Glands - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Adrenal Medulla: Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
=> Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone, Cortisol
=> Ovaries
=> Testes
=> Melatonin
=> Prostaglandins (PGs)
=> Mechanisms of Hormone Action
=> Aging and the Endocrine System

Blood


=> Characteristics of Blood
=> Plasma
=> Red Blood Cells: Function, Production and Maturation, Life Span, Blood Types
=> White Blood Cells: Classification and Function
=> Platelets: Function
=> Prevention of Abnormal Clotting

The Heart


=> Location and Pericardial Membranes
=> Heart Chambers-Vessels and Valves
=> Coronary Vessels
=> Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds
=> Cardiac Conduction Pathway
=> Heart Rate
=> Cardiac Output
=> Regulation of Heart Rate
=> Aging and the Heart

The Vascular System


=> Arteries - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Veins - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Capillaries - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Pathways of Circulation
=> Velocity of Blood Flow
=> Blood Pressure
=> Maintenance of Systemic Blood Pressure
=> Distribution of Blood Flow
=> Regulation of Blood Pressure
=> Aging and the Vascular System

The Lymphatic System and Immunity


=> Lymph - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Lymph Vessels
=> Lymphatic Tissue
=> Lymph Nodes and Nodules
=> Spleen
=> Thymus
=> Immunity
=> Innate Immunity
=> Adaptive Immunity
=> Types of Immunity
=> Aging and the Lymphatic System

The Respiratory System


=> Divisions of the Respiratory System
=> Mechanism of Breathing
=> Pulmonary Volumes
=> Exchange of Gases - The Respiratory System
=> Transport of Gases in the Blood
=> Regulation of Respiration: Nervous and Chemical Regulation
=> Respiration and Acid-Base Balance
=> Aging and the Respiratory System

The Digestive System


=> Divisions of the Digestive System
=> Types of Digestion
=> Oral Cavity
=> Pharynx
=> Esophagus
=> Structural Layers of the Alimentary Tube
=> Stomach - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Small Intestine - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Liver - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Gallbladder - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Pancreas
=> Completion of Digestion and Absorption
=> Large Intestine - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Functions of the Liver
=> Aging and the Digestive System

Body Temperature and Metabolism


=> Body Temperature
=> Heat Production - Body Temperature
=> Heat Loss - Body Temperature
=> Regulation of Body Temperature
=> Fever - Body Temperature
=> Metabolism
=> Cell Respiration
=> Synthesis Uses Of Foods - Metabolism
=> Metabolism: Vitamins and Minerals
=> Metabolic Rate
=> Aging and Metabolism

The Urinary System


=> The Urinary System
=> Kidneys - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Internal Structure of the Kidney
=> Nephron - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Blood Vessels of the Kidney
=> Formation of Urine
=> Glomerular Filtration - Formation of Urine
=> Tubular Reabsorption - Formation of Urine
=> Tubular Secretion - Formation of Urine
=> Hormones that Influence Reabsorption of Water - Formation of Urine
=> Kidneys and Acid-Base Balance
=> Functions of the Kidneys
=> Elimination of Urine
=> Characteristics of Urine
=> Aging and the Urinary System

Fluid Electrolyte and Acid Base Balance


=> Water Compartments in Human body
=> Water Intake and Output in Human body
=> Electrolytes in Human body
=> Acid-Base Balance in Human body
=> Aging and Fluid and pH Regulation

The Reproductive Systems


=> Meiosis - Human Reproductive Systems
=> Male Reproductive System in Human
=> Female Reproductive System in Human
=> Menstrual Cycle in Human
=> Aging and the Reproductive Systems
=> Testes - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Urethra-Penis
=> Semen
=> Ovaries - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Fallopian Tubes
=> Uterus - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Vagina - Anatomy and Physiology
=> External Genitals - Anatomy and Physiology
=> Mammary Glands - Anatomy and Physiology

Human Development and Genetics


=> Human Development
=> Embryo And Embryonic Membranes
=> Placenta and Umbilical Cord
=> Parturition and Labor
=> Infant at Birth
=> Genetics

An Introduction to Microbiology and Human Disease


=> Classification of Microorganisms
=> Normal Flora
=> Infectious Disease
=> Epidemiology
=> Methods of Control of Microbes
=> The Pathogens and its List



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