Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology

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Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology

Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology

Organization and General Plan of the Body

Organization and General Plan of the Body
Levels of Organization
Metabolism and Homeostasis
Terminology and General Plan of the Body

Some Basic Chemistry

Chemical Bonds
Chemical Reactions
Inorganic Compounds of Importance
Organic Compounds of Importance
Nucleic Acids


Cell Structure
Cell Membrane
Nucleus - Cells
Cytoplasm and Cell Organelles
Cellular Transport Mechanisms
The Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis
Cell Division
Aging and Cells

Tissues and Membranes

Epithelial Tissue
Connective Tissue
Muscle Tissue
Nerve Tissue
Membranes: Epithelial and Connective, serous and mucous Membranes
Aging and Tissues

The Integumentary System

Skin - Anatomy and Physiology
Outer epidermis - Skin
Inner dermis - Skin
Subcutaneous Tissue
Aging and the Integumentary System

The Skeletal System

Skeletal System
Functions of the Skeleton
Types of Bone Tissue
Classification of Bones
Embryonic Growth of Bone
Factors That Affect Bone Growth and Maintenance
The Skeleton
Skull - Skeleton
Vertebral Column - Skeleton
Rib Cage - Skeleton
Shoulder And Arm - Skeleton
Hip and Leg - Skeleton
Aging and the Skeletal System

The Muscular System

The Muscular System
Muscle Structure
Muscle Tone
Muscle Sense
Energy Sources for Muscle Contraction
Muscle Fiber- Microscopic Structure
Contraction-The Sliding Filament Mechanism
Responses to Exercise-Maintaining Homeostasis
Aging and the Muscular System
Major Muscles of the Body

The Nervous System

The Nervous System
Nervous System Divisions
Nerve Tissue
Types of Neurons
Nerves and Nerve Tracts
The Nerve Impulse
Spinal Cord
Spinal Nerves
Spinal Cord Reflexes
The Brain - Anatomy and Physiology
Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid
Cranial Nerves
Autonomic Nervous System
Aging and the Nervous System

The Senses

Sensory Pathway
Characteristics of Sensations
Cutaneous Senses
Muscle Sense
Sense of Taste
Sense of Smell
Hunger and Thirst
The Eye - Structure, Anatomy and Physiology
Eyeball: Layers and Cavities of the Eyeball
Physiology of Vision - Eye
The Ear: Anatomy and Physiology
Arterial Receptors
Aging and the Senses

The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System
Chemistry of Hormones
Regulation of Hormone Secretion
The Pituitary Gland - Anatomy and Physiology
Posterior Pituitary Gland
Anterior Pituitary Gland
Thyroid Gland - Anatomy and Physiology
Parathyroid Glands and Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Pancreas - Anatomy and Physiology
Adrenal Glands - Anatomy and Physiology
Adrenal Medulla: Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone, Cortisol
Prostaglandins (PGs)
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
Aging and the Endocrine System


Characteristics of Blood
Red Blood Cells: Function, Production and Maturation, Life Span, Blood Types
White Blood Cells: Classification and Function
Platelets: Function
Prevention of Abnormal Clotting

The Heart

Location and Pericardial Membranes
Heart Chambers-Vessels and Valves
Coronary Vessels
Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds
Cardiac Conduction Pathway
Heart Rate
Cardiac Output
Regulation of Heart Rate
Aging and the Heart

The Vascular System

Arteries - Anatomy and Physiology
Veins - Anatomy and Physiology
Capillaries - Anatomy and Physiology
Pathways of Circulation
Velocity of Blood Flow
Blood Pressure
Maintenance of Systemic Blood Pressure
Distribution of Blood Flow
Regulation of Blood Pressure
Aging and the Vascular System

The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Lymph - Anatomy and Physiology
Lymph Vessels
Lymphatic Tissue
Lymph Nodes and Nodules
Innate Immunity
Adaptive Immunity
Types of Immunity
Aging and the Lymphatic System

The Respiratory System

Divisions of the Respiratory System
Mechanism of Breathing
Pulmonary Volumes
Exchange of Gases - The Respiratory System
Transport of Gases in the Blood
Regulation of Respiration: Nervous and Chemical Regulation
Respiration and Acid-Base Balance
Aging and the Respiratory System

The Digestive System

Divisions of the Digestive System
Types of Digestion
Oral Cavity
Structural Layers of the Alimentary Tube
Stomach - Anatomy and Physiology
Small Intestine - Anatomy and Physiology
Liver - Anatomy and Physiology
Gallbladder - Anatomy and Physiology
Completion of Digestion and Absorption
Large Intestine - Anatomy and Physiology
Functions of the Liver
Aging and the Digestive System

Body Temperature and Metabolism

Body Temperature
Heat Production - Body Temperature
Heat Loss - Body Temperature
Regulation of Body Temperature
Fever - Body Temperature
Cell Respiration
Synthesis Uses Of Foods - Metabolism
Metabolism: Vitamins and Minerals
Metabolic Rate
Aging and Metabolism

The Urinary System

The Urinary System
Kidneys - Anatomy and Physiology
Internal Structure of the Kidney
Nephron - Anatomy and Physiology
Blood Vessels of the Kidney
Formation of Urine
Glomerular Filtration - Formation of Urine
Tubular Reabsorption - Formation of Urine
Tubular Secretion - Formation of Urine
Hormones that Influence Reabsorption of Water - Formation of Urine
Kidneys and Acid-Base Balance
Functions of the Kidneys
Elimination of Urine
Characteristics of Urine
Aging and the Urinary System

Fluid Electrolyte and Acid Base Balance

Water Compartments in Human body
Water Intake and Output in Human body
Electrolytes in Human body
Acid-Base Balance in Human body
Aging and Fluid and pH Regulation

The Reproductive Systems

Meiosis - Human Reproductive Systems
Male Reproductive System in Human
Female Reproductive System in Human
Menstrual Cycle in Human
Aging and the Reproductive Systems
Testes - Anatomy and Physiology
Ovaries - Anatomy and Physiology
Fallopian Tubes
Uterus - Anatomy and Physiology
Vagina - Anatomy and Physiology
External Genitals - Anatomy and Physiology
Mammary Glands - Anatomy and Physiology

Human Development and Genetics

Human Development
Embryo And Embryonic Membranes
Placenta and Umbilical Cord
Parturition and Labor
Infant at Birth

An Introduction to Microbiology and Human Disease

Classification of Microorganisms
Normal Flora
Infectious Disease
Methods of Control of Microbes
The Pathogens and its List

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