Introduction to Human Nutrition

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Introduction to Human Nutrition

A Global Perspective on Food and Nutrition


=> Orientation to human nutrition
=> An integrated approach of Human Nutrition
=> A conceptional framework for the study of nutrition
=> Relationship between nutrition and health
=> Nutrients: the basics
=> Global malnutrition
=> Relationship between nutrition science and practice
=> Nutrition milestones: the development of nutrition as a science
=> Future challenges for nutrition research and practice

Body Composition


=> Body Composition
=> Five levels of body composition
=> Relationships between different levels of body composition
=> Body composition techniques
=> Direct methods - Body composition techniques
=> Indirect methods - Body composition techniques
=> Doubly indirect methods - Body composition techniques
=> Carcass analysis - Direct methods in Body composition techniques
=> In vivo neutron activation analysis - Direct methods in Body composition techniques
=> Densitometry - Indirect methods in Body composition techniques
=> Dilution techniques - Indirect methods in Body composition techniques
=> Total body potassium - Indirect methods in Body composition techniques
=> Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry - Indirect methods in Body composition techniques
=> Imaging techniques - Indirect methods in Body composition techniques
=> Weight/height indices - Doubly indirect methods in Body composition techniques
=> Skinfold thickness measurements - Doubly indirect methods in Body composition techniques
=> Anthropometric variables - Body composition techniques
=> Infrared interactance - Body composition techniques
=> Ultrasound measurements - Doubly indirect methods in Body composition techniques
=> Bioelectrical impedance - Body composition techniques
=> Total body electrical conductivity - Body composition techniques
=> Creatinine excretion and N-methyl-histidine excretion - Body composition techniques
=> Use and misuse of body composition data

Energy Metabolism


=> Energy Metabolism
=> Components of energy balance - Human Nutrition: Energy Metabolism
=> Energy intake - Human Nutrition: Energy Metabolism
=> Factors influencing food intake
=> Energy expenditure: Concept, Measurement, Historical aspects
=> Factors that influence energy expenditure
=> Energy expenditure related to physical activity - Energy Metabolism
=> Energy requirements - Human Nutrition: Energy Metabolism
=> Energy balance(Human Nutrition) in various conditions
=> Energy requirements in disease and trauma
=> Obesity: Basic metabolic principles
=> Definition of obesity
=> Etiology of obesity: excess intake or decreased physical activity
=> Role of physical activity and energy expenditure in the development of obesity

Nutrition and Metabolism of Proteins and Amino Acids


=> Nutrition and Metabolism of Proteins and Amino Acids
=> A historical perspective - Nutrition and Metabolism of Proteins
=> Structure and chemistry of amino acids
=> Classification of amino acids
=> Biology of protein and amino acid requirements
=> Body protein mass
=> Turnover of proteins and amino acid metabolism: Protein synthesis, degradation, and turnover
=> Amino acids as precursors of physiologically important nitrogen compounds
=> Urea cycle enzymes and urea production
=> Estimation of protein and amino acid requirements
=> Nitrogen balance and definition of requirement
=> Protein requirements for various age and physiological groups
=> Definition and determination of indispensable amino acid requirements
=> Meeting protein and amino acid needs
=> Factors other than diet affecting protein and amino acid requirements

Digestion and Metabolism of Carbohydrates


=> Carbohydrates in foods
=> Digestive fate of dietary carbohydrates
=> Glycemic carbohydrates
=> Metabolic utilization of carbohydrate
=> Regulation of blood glucose concentration
=> Dietary management of blood glucose concentration
=> Nonglycemic carbohydrates
=> Physiological classification of carbohydrates entering the colon
=> Chemical classification of carbohydrates entering the colon
=> Amount of carbohydrate entering the human colon
=> Resistant starch
=> Dietary fiber
=> Intakes of dietary fiber, oligosaccharides, and other indigestible sugars
=> Fermentation in the colon
=> Fate of short-chain fatty acids
=> Carbohydrates and dental caries

Nutrition and Metabolism of Lipids


=> History of lipids in human nutrition
=> Terminology of dietary fats
=> Lipids as components of the diet
=> Digestion, absorption, and transport of dietary fat
=> Reception, emulsification, lipolysis, solubilization, and absorption
=> Solubilization of emulsified fat
=> Absorption of solubilized fat
=> Enterohepatic circulation
=> Re-esterification of triacylglycerols in the enterocyte
=> Lipoprotein assembly and secretion
=> Postprandial lipemia
=> Postprandial lipemia: relevance to atherosclerosis
=> Lipoprotein structure: a shopping bag and groceries
=> Lipoprotein transport pathways - Circulating lipids: lipoprotein structures and metabolism
=> Metabolic determinants of lipoprotein metabolism
=> Low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway
=> Reverse cholesterol transport (high-density lipoprotein pathway)
=> Interrelationships among serum triacylglycerols and low- and high-density lipoproteins
=> Endocrine control of lipoprotein metabolism
=> Sex hormones on lipoprotein
=> The triacylglycerol hypothesis - Circulating lipids: lipoprotein structures and metabolism
=> Body lipid pools
=> Long-chain fatty acid metabolism
=> Nutritional regulation of long-chain fatty acid profiles and metabolism
=> Nutritional and metabolic effects of dietary fatty acids
=> Cholesterol synthesis and regulation: Cholesterol and the brain
=> Effect of diet on serum lipids and lipoproteins
=> Diet and serum cholesterol
=> Trans fatty acids - Effect of diet on serum lipids and lipoproteins
=> Plant sterols and soluble nonstarch polysaccharides - Effect of diet on serum lipids and lipoproteins
=> Dietary cholesterol - Effect of diet on serum lipids and lipoproteins
=> Fat quantity versus quality: importance of the ratio of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
=> Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from plants and fish
=> Saturated fatty acids and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
=> Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum triacylglycerols

Dietary Reference Standards


=> Dietary Reference Standards
=> Terminology and conceptual approaches to setting nutrient recommendations
=> Interpretation and uses of dietary recommendations
=> The use of reference values to assess the adequacy of the nutrient intakes of population groups
=> Methods used to determine requirements and set dietary recommendations
=> Methods used to determine requirements

The Vitamins


=> Vitamins
=> Vitamins: Introduction - Human Nutrition
=> Vitamin A - Human Nutrition
=> Vitamers and international units
=> Metabolism and storage of vitamin A and pro-vitamin A carotenoids
=> Metabolic functions of vitamin A and carotenes
=> Vitamin A deficiency: night blindness and xerophthalmia
=> Vitamin A requirements and reference intakes
=> Toxicity of vitamin A
=> Interactions of vitamin A with drugs and other nutrients
=> Vitamin D - Human Nutrition
=> Vitamers and international units - Vitamin D
=> Vitamin D Absorption and metabolism
=> Regulation of vitamin D metabolism
=> Metabolic functions of vitamin D
=> Vitamin D deficiency: rickets and osteomalacia
=> Vitamin D requirements and reference intakes
=> Vitamin D toxicity
=> Interactions of Vitamin D with drugs and other nutrients
=> Vitamin E - Human Nutrition
=> Vitamers and units of activity - Vitamin E
=> Vitamin E Absorption and metabolism
=> Metabolic functions of vitamin E
=> Vitamin E deficiency
=> Vitamin E requirements
=> Interactions of Vitamin E with other nutrients
=> Vitamin K - Human Nutrition
=> Vitamers - Vitamin K
=> Dietary sources, bacterial synthesis and metabolism - Vitamin K
=> Metabolic functions of vitamin K
=> Vitamin K deficiency and requirements
=> Toxicity and drug interactions of Vitamin K
=> Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
=> Absorption and metabolism of thiamin(Vitamin B1)
=> Metabolic functions of thiamin(Vitamin B1)
=> Absorption and metabolism of thiamin (Vitamin B1)
=> Metabolic functions of thiamin (Vitamin B1)
=> Thiamin (Vitamin B1) deficiency
=> Thiamin (Vitamin B1) requirements
=> Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) - Human Nutrition
=> Absorption and metabolism of Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
=> Metabolic functions of the flavin coenzymes
=> Riboflavin(Vitamin B2) deficiency
=> Riboflavin(Vitamin B2) requirements
=> Interactions of Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) with drugs and other nutrients
=> Niacin - Human Nutrition
=> Vitamers and niacin equivalents
=> Absorption and metabolism of Niacin
=> Metabolic functions of niacin
=> Pellagra: a disease of tryptophan and niacin deficiency
=> Niacin requirements
=> Niacin toxicity
=> Vitamin B6 - Human Nutrition
=> Vitamers - vitamin B6
=> Absorption and metabolism of vitamin B6
=> Metabolic functions of vitamin B6
=> Vitamin B6 deficiency
=> Vitamin B6 requirements
=> Assessment of vitamin B6 status
=> Non-nutritional uses of vitamin B6
=> Vitamin B6 toxicity
=> Vitamin B12 - Human Nutrition
=> Structure and vitamers - vitamin B12
=> Absorption and metabolism of vitamin B12
=> Vitamin B12 deficiency: pernicious anemia
=> Vitamin B12 requirements
=> Assessment of vitamin B12 status
=> Folic acid - Human Nutrition
=> Vitamers and dietary equivalence - Folic acid
=> Absorption and metabolism of folate
=> Metabolic functions of folate
=> Folate deficiency: megaloblastic anemia
=> Folate requirements
=> Assessment of folate status
=> Drug-nutrient interactions of folate
=> Folate toxicity
=> Biotin - Human Nutrition
=> Absorption and metabolism of biotin
=> Metabolic functions of biotin
=> Biotin deficiency and requirements
=> Pantothenic acid - Human Nutrition
=> Absorption, metabolism, and metabolic functions of pantothenic acid
=> Pantothenic acid deficiency and safe and adequate levels of intake
=> Non-nutritional uses of pantothenic acid
=> Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) - Human Nutrition
=> Absorption and metabolism of vitamin C
=> Metabolic functions of vitamin C
=> Vitamin C deficiency: scurvy
=> Vitamin C requirements
=> Assessment of vitamin C status
=> Possible benefits of high intakes of vitamin C
=> Toxicity of vitamin C

Minerals and Trace Elements


=> Minerals and Trace Elements
=> Calcium: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Calcium: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Magnesium: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Magnesium: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Phosphorus: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Phosphorus: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Sodium and chloride: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Sodium and chloride: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Potassium: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Potassium: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Iron: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Iron: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Zinc: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Zinc: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Copper: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Copper: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Selenium: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Selenium: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Iodine: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Iodine: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Manganese: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Manganese: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Molybdenum: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Molybdenum: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Fluoride: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Fluoride: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
=> Chromium: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
=> Chromium: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions

Measuring Food Intake


=> Measuring Food Intake
=> Indirect measurement of food intake
=> Household-based surveys
=> Direct measures of food intake
=> Methods for measuring intake on specified days
=> Methods for measuring intake over the longer term
=> Sources of error in dietary studies
=> Choosing a dietary assessment method
=> Repeatability and Validity of dietary methods
=> Biological measures to validate energy and nutrient intake
=> Evaluation of food intake data
=> Assessment of dietary adequacy
=> Assessing food intake
=> Food safety assessments

Food Composition


=> Food Composition
=> Foods - Food Composition
=> Nutrients, nonnutrients and energy
=> Information required on sources of data in tables
=> Overcoming the inadequacies of food composition tables
=> Nutrient losses and gains during food processing and preparation
=> Bioavailability and glycemic index
=> How to calculate a recipe not included in the database
=> Description of food composition tables and databases and how to retrieve data
=> Converting foods to nutrients

Food and Nutrition


=> Reference points in human nutrition
=> Exploration of dietary patterns
=> Options to change food and nutrient intakes
=> Global players in food and nutrition regulation
=> FAO/WHO and Codex Alimentarius
=> WTO: Sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade
=> European Food Safety Authority
=> EU nutrition and public health

Nutrition Research Methodology


=> Nutrition Research Methodology
=> Statistical analysis and experimental design - Nutrition Research Methodology
=> In vitro studies - Nutrition Research Methodology
=> Animal models in nutrition research - Nutrition Research Methodology
=> Human studies - Nutrition Research Methodology
=> Epidemiological designs - Nutrition Research Methodology

Food Safety


=> Factors contributing to food safety concerns
=> Food-borne bacteria
=> Food-borne viruses
=> Food-borne parasites
=> Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and food
=> Chemicals affecting food safety
=> Food safety control programs

Food and Nutrition Related Diseases


=> Food and Nutrition-Related Diseases: The Global Challenge
=> Nutrition-related diseases in developed countries
=> Nutrition-related diseases in developing countries
=> HIV/AIDS - Food and Nutrition Related Diseases
=> Global challenge to address malnutrition



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