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Chapter: Introduction to Human Nutrition: The Vitamins

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Metabolic functions of biotin

Biotin functions to transfer carbon dioxide in a small number of carboxylation reactions.

Metabolic functions of biotin

Biotin functions to transfer carbon dioxide in a small number of carboxylation reactions. The reactive intermediate is 1-N-carboxy-biocytin (Figure 8.17), formed from bicarbonate in an ATP-dependent reac-tion. A single enzyme acts on the apoenzymes of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, propi- onyl-CoA carboxylase, and methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase to form the active holoenzymes from (inactive) apoenzymes and free biotin.

 

Figure 8.17 Biotin, biotinyl-lysine (biocytin) and the role of biocytin as a carbon dioxide carrier.

Biotin also has a role in the control of the cell cycle, and acts via cell surface receptors to regulate the expression of key enzymes involved in glucose metab-olism. In response to mitogenic stimuli there is a con-siderable increase in the tissue uptake of biotin, much of which is used to biotinylate histones and other nuclear proteins.


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