Basic Biochemistry

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Basic Biochemistry

Basic Biochemistry



Living Cell


Living Cell
Types of Living cells
Sub cellular Organelles
Cell Membrane and its Functions
Cell Wall and its Functions
Nucleus and its Functions
Mitochondria and its Functions
Endoplasmic reticulum and its Functions
Golgi apparatus and its Functions
Ribosomes and its Functions
Lysosomes and its Functions
Peroxisomes and its Functions
Cytoplasm and its Functions
Chloroplasts and its Functions
Cell Vacuoles
Blood: Composition and Functions
Formation of blood
Body Fluids
Buffers
Uses of buffer
Buffers of blood
Acids and bases

Biomolecules


Biomolecule: Carbohydrates
Classification and Functions of Carbohydrates
Proteins: Definition, Classification, Functions
Lipids: Definition, Classification, Functions
Nucleic acids: Definition, Classification, Functions

Enzymes


Enzymes
Chemical nature of enzymes
Naming of enzymes
Classification of enzymes
Factors influencing enzyme activity
Types of enzyme inhibition
Iso enzymes
Importance of enzymes

Carbohydrates


Functions of carbohydrates
Classification of carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
Physical properties of monosaccharides
Chemical properties of glucose
Haworth projection formula of glucose and fructose
Disaccharides
Poly saccharides

Proteins


Proteins and Sources of protein
Amino acids
Properties of amino acids
Classification of amino acids
Physical and Chemical Properties of proteins
Protein structure
Biologically important proteins

Lipids


Lipids
Classification of Fatty acids
Essential fatty acid (EFA): Structure, Functions
Structure of triacyl glycerol
Physical and Chemical Properties of triacyl glycerol
Phospholipids
Classification of Phospholipids
Properties of glycero phospholipids and sphingo phospholipids
Importance of phospholipids
Sterols
Cholesterol: Structure, Properties

Nucleic Acids


Structure and Properties of pyrimidine bases
Purine bases: Structure and Properties
Nucleic acids
Nucleic acids: Nucleosides and Nucleotides
Structure of DNA
Functions of DNA
Structure and types of RNA

Vitamins


Vitamins
Fat soluble vitamins
Water soluble vitamins
Vitamin - A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Thiamine (B1)
Riboflavin (B2)
Niacin (B3)
Pyridoxine (B6)
Folic acid
Vitamin B12
Pantothenic acid (B5)
Biotin
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Minerals


Minerals Introduction
Calcium
Phosphorus
Sodium
Potassium
Chlorine
Magnesium
Sulphur
Iron
Copper
Iodine
Fluorine
Zinc
Cobalt
Manganese
Chromium
Molybdenum
Selenium

Biochemical Techniques


Chromatography
Types of chromatography
Column chromatography: Types, Principle
Thin Layer chromatography
Paper chromatography
Applications of chromatography
Electrophoresis: principle, Types
Centrifugation techniques: Principle, Types, Uses
Differential centrifugation technique
Spectrophotometry
The photoelectric colorimeter
Applications of spectrophotometry

Cell Membrane


Cell Membrane: Introduction
Cell Membrane: Chemical Composition
Models proposed for the plasma membrane
Membrane Transport
Cell Membrane: Viscosity
Surface tension
Osmosis and Biological Significance
Buffers

Digestion


Biochemistry: Digestion
Carbohydrates in Digestion
Digestion of Proteins
Digestion of Lipids
Digestion of Nucleic acids

Carbohydrate Metabolism


Biochemistry: Carbohydrate Metabolism
Carbohydrate as a source of energy
Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
HMP shunt pathway
Glycogen
Glycogen biosynthesis
Degradation of glycogen (Glycogenolysis)
Gluconeogenesis
Diabetes Mellitus

Protein Metabolism


Protein Metabolism
Protein biosynthesis
Protein Metabolism Translation
Metabolism of Proteins
Urea Cycle
Formation of Niacin
Formation of Melanin
Formation of thyroid hormone
Formation of catecholamines

Lipid Metabolism


Lipid Metabolism
Biological functions of Lipids
Fatty acids
Biosynthesis of fatty acids
Oxidation of Fatty Acids
Cholesterol Biosynthesis
Biosynthesis of cholesterol
Important products derived from cholesterol
Biosynthesis of phospholipids
Cephalin
Atherosclerosis

Nucleic Acid Metabolism


Nucleic Acid Metabolism
Biosynthesis of DNA
Replication and Models of Replication
Sequential Process of Replication Initiation of DNA replication
Catabolism of DNA by Deoxyribonucleases
Biosynthesis of RNA (Transcription)
Processing of mRNA molecules
mRNA Processing of tRNA Molecules
Role of tRNA in protein synthesis

Inborn Errors of Metabolism


Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Galactosemia: Causes, Symptoms
Von - Gierkeís Disease : Cause, Symptoms
Hemophilia: Causes, Symptoms
Albinism
Alkaptonuria: Causes, Symptoms
Taysachís Disease: Causes, Symptoms
Neoplasm

Biological Oxidation


Biological Oxidation
Redox Couple
Electron transport chain
Oxidative phosphorylation
High energy compounds

Enzyme Kinetics


Enzyme Kinetics
Derivation of M - M Equation
Enzyme Action
Enzyme Inhibitor - Concepts

Immunology


Immunology
Infections
Immunity
Natural Immunity
Acquired immunity
Humoral immunity
Cell mediated immunity
Antigens
Structure and Types of Antigens
Factors influencing the antigenicity of antigens
Antibodies
Antibody Structure
Immunoglobulin and their functions, Types
Antigen antibody reactions
Blood groups

Practicals


Collection of Blood
Preparation of Starch From Potatoes
Preparation of Casein From Milk
Estimation of Protein (Biuret Method) - Colorimetric Estimation
Estimation of Glucose (Orthotoluidine method)
Estimation of Calcium (Titrimetric Method)
Determination of Blood Grouping



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