Basic Biochemistry

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Basic Biochemistry

Living Cell


=> Living Cell
=> Types of Living cells
=> Sub cellular Organelles
=> Cell Membrane and its Functions
=> Cell Wall and its Functions
=> Nucleus and its Functions
=> Mitochondria and its Functions
=> Endoplasmic reticulum and its Functions
=> Golgi apparatus and its Functions
=> Ribosomes and its Functions
=> Lysosomes and its Functions
=> Peroxisomes and its Functions
=> Cytoplasm and its Functions
=> Chloroplasts and its Functions
=> Cell Vacuoles
=> Blood: Composition and Functions
=> Formation of blood
=> Body Fluids
=> Buffers
=> Uses of buffer
=> Buffers of blood
=> Acids and bases

Biomolecules


=> Biomolecule: Carbohydrates
=> Classification and Functions of Carbohydrates
=> Proteins: Definition, Classification, Functions
=> Lipids: Definition, Classification, Functions
=> Nucleic acids: Definition, Classification, Functions

Enzymes


=> Enzymes
=> Chemical nature of enzymes
=> Naming of enzymes
=> Classification of enzymes
=> Factors influencing enzyme activity
=> Types of enzyme inhibition
=> Iso enzymes
=> Importance of enzymes

Carbohydrates


=> Functions of carbohydrates
=> Classification of carbohydrates
=> Monosaccharides
=> Physical properties of monosaccharides
=> Chemical properties of glucose
=> Haworth projection formula of glucose and fructose
=> Disaccharides
=> Poly saccharides

Proteins


=> Proteins and Sources of protein
=> Amino acids
=> Properties of amino acids
=> Classification of amino acids
=> Physical and Chemical Properties of proteins
=> Protein structure
=> Biologically important proteins

Lipids


=> Lipids
=> Classification of Fatty acids
=> Essential fatty acid (EFA): Structure, Functions
=> Structure of triacyl glycerol
=> Physical and Chemical Properties of triacyl glycerol
=> Phospholipids
=> Classification of Phospholipids
=> Properties of glycero phospholipids and sphingo phospholipids
=> Importance of phospholipids
=> Sterols
=> Cholesterol: Structure, Properties

Nucleic Acids


=> Structure and Properties of pyrimidine bases
=> Purine bases: Structure and Properties
=> Nucleic acids
=> Nucleic acids: Nucleosides and Nucleotides
=> Structure of DNA
=> Functions of DNA
=> Structure and types of RNA

Vitamins


=> Vitamins
=> Fat soluble vitamins
=> Water soluble vitamins
=> Vitamin - A
=> Vitamin D
=> Vitamin E
=> Vitamin K
=> Thiamine (B1)
=> Riboflavin (B2)
=> Niacin (B3)
=> Pyridoxine (B6)
=> Folic acid
=> Vitamin B12
=> Pantothenic acid (B5)
=> Biotin
=> Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Minerals


=> Minerals Introduction
=> Calcium
=> Phosphorus
=> Sodium
=> Potassium
=> Chlorine
=> Magnesium
=> Sulphur
=> Iron
=> Copper
=> Iodine
=> Fluorine
=> Zinc
=> Cobalt
=> Manganese
=> Chromium
=> Molybdenum
=> Selenium

Biochemical Techniques


=> Chromatography
=> Types of chromatography
=> Column chromatography: Types, Principle
=> Thin Layer chromatography
=> Paper chromatography
=> Applications of chromatography
=> Electrophoresis: principle, Types
=> Centrifugation techniques: Principle, Types, Uses
=> Differential centrifugation technique
=> Spectrophotometry
=> The photoelectric colorimeter
=> Applications of spectrophotometry

Cell Membrane


=> Cell Membrane: Introduction
=> Cell Membrane: Chemical Composition
=> Models proposed for the plasma membrane
=> Membrane Transport
=> Cell Membrane: Viscosity
=> Surface tension
=> Osmosis and Biological Significance
=> Buffers

Digestion


=> Biochemistry: Digestion
=> Carbohydrates in Digestion
=> Digestion of Proteins
=> Digestion of Lipids
=> Digestion of Nucleic acids

Carbohydrate Metabolism


=> Biochemistry: Carbohydrate Metabolism
=> Carbohydrate as a source of energy
=> Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)
=> HMP shunt pathway
=> Glycogen
=> Glycogen biosynthesis
=> Degradation of glycogen (Glycogenolysis)
=> Gluconeogenesis
=> Diabetes Mellitus

Protein Metabolism


=> Protein Metabolism
=> Protein biosynthesis
=> Protein Metabolism Translation
=> Metabolism of Proteins
=> Urea Cycle
=> Formation of Niacin
=> Formation of Melanin
=> Formation of thyroid hormone
=> Formation of catecholamines

Lipid Metabolism


=> Lipid Metabolism
=> Biological functions of Lipids
=> Fatty acids
=> Biosynthesis of fatty acids
=> Oxidation of Fatty Acids
=> Cholesterol Biosynthesis
=> Biosynthesis of cholesterol
=> Important products derived from cholesterol
=> Biosynthesis of phospholipids
=> Cephalin
=> Atherosclerosis

Nucleic Acid Metabolism


=> Nucleic Acid Metabolism
=> Biosynthesis of DNA
=> Replication and Models of Replication
=> Sequential Process of Replication Initiation of DNA replication
=> Catabolism of DNA by Deoxyribonucleases
=> Biosynthesis of RNA (Transcription)
=> Processing of mRNA molecules
=> mRNA Processing of tRNA Molecules
=> Role of tRNA in protein synthesis

Inborn Errors of Metabolism


=> Inborn Errors of Metabolism
=> Galactosemia: Causes, Symptoms
=> Von - Gierke’s Disease : Cause, Symptoms
=> Hemophilia: Causes, Symptoms
=> Albinism
=> Alkaptonuria: Causes, Symptoms
=> Taysach’s Disease: Causes, Symptoms
=> Neoplasm

Biological Oxidation


=> Biological Oxidation
=> Redox Couple
=> Electron transport chain
=> Oxidative phosphorylation
=> High energy compounds

Enzyme Kinetics


=> Enzyme Kinetics
=> Derivation of M - M Equation
=> Enzyme Action
=> Enzyme Inhibitor - Concepts

Immunology


=> Immunology
=> Infections
=> Immunity
=> Natural Immunity
=> Acquired immunity
=> Humoral immunity
=> Cell mediated immunity
=> Antigens
=> Structure and Types of Antigens
=> Factors influencing the antigenicity of antigens
=> Antibodies
=> Antibody Structure
=> Immunoglobulin and their functions, Types
=> Antigen antibody reactions
=> Blood groups

Practicals


=> Collection of Blood
=> Preparation of Starch From Potatoes
=> Preparation of Casein From Milk
=> Estimation of Protein (Biuret Method) - Colorimetric Estimation
=> Estimation of Glucose (Orthotoluidine method)
=> Estimation of Calcium (Titrimetric Method)
=> Determination of Blood Grouping



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