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Introduction to Human Nutrition -

Introduction to Human Nutrition

A Global Perspective on Food and Nutrition


-:- Orientation to human nutrition
-:- An integrated approach of Human Nutrition
-:- A conceptional framework for the study of nutrition
-:- Relationship between nutrition and health
-:- Nutrients: the basics
-:- Global malnutrition
-:- Relationship between nutrition science and practice
-:- Nutrition milestones: the development of nutrition as a science
-:- Future challenges for nutrition research and practice

Body Composition


-:- Body Composition
-:- Five levels of body composition
-:- Relationships between different levels of body composition
-:- Body composition techniques
-:- Direct methods - Body composition techniques
-:- Indirect methods - Body composition techniques
-:- Doubly indirect methods - Body composition techniques
-:- Carcass analysis - Direct methods in Body composition techniques
-:- In vivo neutron activation analysis - Direct methods in Body composition techniques
-:- Densitometry - Indirect methods in Body composition techniques
-:- Dilution techniques - Indirect methods in Body composition techniques
-:- Total body potassium - Indirect methods in Body composition techniques
-:- Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry - Indirect methods in Body composition techniques
-:- Imaging techniques - Indirect methods in Body composition techniques
-:- Weight/height indices - Doubly indirect methods in Body composition techniques
-:- Skinfold thickness measurements - Doubly indirect methods in Body composition techniques
-:- Anthropometric variables - Body composition techniques
-:- Infrared interactance - Body composition techniques
-:- Ultrasound measurements - Doubly indirect methods in Body composition techniques
-:- Bioelectrical impedance - Body composition techniques
-:- Total body electrical conductivity - Body composition techniques
-:- Creatinine excretion and N-methyl-histidine excretion - Body composition techniques
-:- Use and misuse of body composition data

Energy Metabolism


-:- Energy Metabolism
-:- Components of energy balance - Human Nutrition: Energy Metabolism
-:- Energy intake - Human Nutrition: Energy Metabolism
-:- Factors influencing food intake
-:- Energy expenditure: Concept, Measurement, Historical aspects
-:- Factors that influence energy expenditure
-:- Energy expenditure related to physical activity - Energy Metabolism
-:- Energy requirements - Human Nutrition: Energy Metabolism
-:- Energy balance(Human Nutrition) in various conditions
-:- Energy requirements in disease and trauma
-:- Obesity: Basic metabolic principles
-:- Definition of obesity
-:- Etiology of obesity: excess intake or decreased physical activity
-:- Role of physical activity and energy expenditure in the development of obesity

Nutrition and Metabolism of Proteins and Amino Acids


-:- Nutrition and Metabolism of Proteins and Amino Acids
-:- A historical perspective - Nutrition and Metabolism of Proteins
-:- Structure and chemistry of amino acids
-:- Classification of amino acids
-:- Biology of protein and amino acid requirements
-:- Body protein mass
-:- Turnover of proteins and amino acid metabolism: Protein synthesis, degradation, and turnover
-:- Amino acids as precursors of physiologically important nitrogen compounds
-:- Urea cycle enzymes and urea production
-:- Estimation of protein and amino acid requirements
-:- Nitrogen balance and definition of requirement
-:- Protein requirements for various age and physiological groups
-:- Definition and determination of indispensable amino acid requirements
-:- Meeting protein and amino acid needs
-:- Factors other than diet affecting protein and amino acid requirements

Digestion and Metabolism of Carbohydrates


-:- Carbohydrates in foods
-:- Digestive fate of dietary carbohydrates
-:- Glycemic carbohydrates
-:- Metabolic utilization of carbohydrate
-:- Regulation of blood glucose concentration
-:- Dietary management of blood glucose concentration
-:- Nonglycemic carbohydrates
-:- Physiological classification of carbohydrates entering the colon
-:- Chemical classification of carbohydrates entering the colon
-:- Amount of carbohydrate entering the human colon
-:- Resistant starch
-:- Dietary fiber
-:- Intakes of dietary fiber, oligosaccharides, and other indigestible sugars
-:- Fermentation in the colon
-:- Fate of short-chain fatty acids
-:- Carbohydrates and dental caries

Nutrition and Metabolism of Lipids


-:- History of lipids in human nutrition
-:- Terminology of dietary fats
-:- Lipids as components of the diet
-:- Digestion, absorption, and transport of dietary fat
-:- Reception, emulsification, lipolysis, solubilization, and absorption
-:- Solubilization of emulsified fat
-:- Absorption of solubilized fat
-:- Enterohepatic circulation
-:- Re-esterification of triacylglycerols in the enterocyte
-:- Lipoprotein assembly and secretion
-:- Postprandial lipemia
-:- Postprandial lipemia: relevance to atherosclerosis
-:- Lipoprotein structure: a shopping bag and groceries
-:- Lipoprotein transport pathways - Circulating lipids: lipoprotein structures and metabolism
-:- Metabolic determinants of lipoprotein metabolism
-:- Low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway
-:- Reverse cholesterol transport (high-density lipoprotein pathway)
-:- Interrelationships among serum triacylglycerols and low- and high-density lipoproteins
-:- Endocrine control of lipoprotein metabolism
-:- Sex hormones on lipoprotein
-:- The triacylglycerol hypothesis - Circulating lipids: lipoprotein structures and metabolism
-:- Body lipid pools
-:- Long-chain fatty acid metabolism
-:- Nutritional regulation of long-chain fatty acid profiles and metabolism
-:- Nutritional and metabolic effects of dietary fatty acids
-:- Cholesterol synthesis and regulation: Cholesterol and the brain
-:- Effect of diet on serum lipids and lipoproteins
-:- Diet and serum cholesterol
-:- Trans fatty acids - Effect of diet on serum lipids and lipoproteins
-:- Plant sterols and soluble nonstarch polysaccharides - Effect of diet on serum lipids and lipoproteins
-:- Dietary cholesterol - Effect of diet on serum lipids and lipoproteins
-:- Fat quantity versus quality: importance of the ratio of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
-:- Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from plants and fish
-:- Saturated fatty acids and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
-:- Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum triacylglycerols

Dietary Reference Standards


-:- Dietary Reference Standards
-:- Terminology and conceptual approaches to setting nutrient recommendations
-:- Interpretation and uses of dietary recommendations
-:- The use of reference values to assess the adequacy of the nutrient intakes of population groups
-:- Methods used to determine requirements and set dietary recommendations
-:- Methods used to determine requirements

The Vitamins


-:- Vitamins
-:- Vitamins: Introduction - Human Nutrition
-:- Vitamin A - Human Nutrition
-:- Vitamers and international units
-:- Metabolism and storage of vitamin A and pro-vitamin A carotenoids
-:- Metabolic functions of vitamin A and carotenes
-:- Vitamin A deficiency: night blindness and xerophthalmia
-:- Vitamin A requirements and reference intakes
-:- Toxicity of vitamin A
-:- Interactions of vitamin A with drugs and other nutrients
-:- Vitamin D - Human Nutrition
-:- Vitamers and international units - Vitamin D
-:- Vitamin D Absorption and metabolism
-:- Regulation of vitamin D metabolism
-:- Metabolic functions of vitamin D
-:- Vitamin D deficiency: rickets and osteomalacia
-:- Vitamin D requirements and reference intakes
-:- Vitamin D toxicity
-:- Interactions of Vitamin D with drugs and other nutrients
-:- Vitamin E - Human Nutrition
-:- Vitamers and units of activity - Vitamin E
-:- Vitamin E Absorption and metabolism
-:- Metabolic functions of vitamin E
-:- Vitamin E deficiency
-:- Vitamin E requirements
-:- Interactions of Vitamin E with other nutrients
-:- Vitamin K - Human Nutrition
-:- Vitamers - Vitamin K
-:- Dietary sources, bacterial synthesis and metabolism - Vitamin K
-:- Metabolic functions of vitamin K
-:- Vitamin K deficiency and requirements
-:- Toxicity and drug interactions of Vitamin K
-:- Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
-:- Absorption and metabolism of thiamin(Vitamin B1)
-:- Metabolic functions of thiamin(Vitamin B1)
-:- Absorption and metabolism of thiamin (Vitamin B1)
-:- Metabolic functions of thiamin (Vitamin B1)
-:- Thiamin (Vitamin B1) deficiency
-:- Thiamin (Vitamin B1) requirements
-:- Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) - Human Nutrition
-:- Absorption and metabolism of Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
-:- Metabolic functions of the flavin coenzymes
-:- Riboflavin(Vitamin B2) deficiency
-:- Riboflavin(Vitamin B2) requirements
-:- Interactions of Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) with drugs and other nutrients
-:- Niacin - Human Nutrition
-:- Vitamers and niacin equivalents
-:- Absorption and metabolism of Niacin
-:- Metabolic functions of niacin
-:- Pellagra: a disease of tryptophan and niacin deficiency
-:- Niacin requirements
-:- Niacin toxicity
-:- Vitamin B6 - Human Nutrition
-:- Vitamers - vitamin B6
-:- Absorption and metabolism of vitamin B6
-:- Metabolic functions of vitamin B6
-:- Vitamin B6 deficiency
-:- Vitamin B6 requirements
-:- Assessment of vitamin B6 status
-:- Non-nutritional uses of vitamin B6
-:- Vitamin B6 toxicity
-:- Vitamin B12 - Human Nutrition
-:- Structure and vitamers - vitamin B12
-:- Absorption and metabolism of vitamin B12
-:- Vitamin B12 deficiency: pernicious anemia
-:- Vitamin B12 requirements
-:- Assessment of vitamin B12 status
-:- Folic acid - Human Nutrition
-:- Vitamers and dietary equivalence - Folic acid
-:- Absorption and metabolism of folate
-:- Metabolic functions of folate
-:- Folate deficiency: megaloblastic anemia
-:- Folate requirements
-:- Assessment of folate status
-:- Drug-nutrient interactions of folate
-:- Folate toxicity
-:- Biotin - Human Nutrition
-:- Absorption and metabolism of biotin
-:- Metabolic functions of biotin
-:- Biotin deficiency and requirements
-:- Pantothenic acid - Human Nutrition
-:- Absorption, metabolism, and metabolic functions of pantothenic acid
-:- Pantothenic acid deficiency and safe and adequate levels of intake
-:- Non-nutritional uses of pantothenic acid
-:- Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) - Human Nutrition
-:- Absorption and metabolism of vitamin C
-:- Metabolic functions of vitamin C
-:- Vitamin C deficiency: scurvy
-:- Vitamin C requirements
-:- Assessment of vitamin C status
-:- Possible benefits of high intakes of vitamin C
-:- Toxicity of vitamin C

Minerals and Trace Elements


-:- Minerals and Trace Elements
-:- Calcium: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Calcium: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Magnesium: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Magnesium: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Phosphorus: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Phosphorus: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Sodium and chloride: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Sodium and chloride: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Potassium: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Potassium: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Iron: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Iron: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Zinc: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Zinc: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Copper: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Copper: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Selenium: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Selenium: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Iodine: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Iodine: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Manganese: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Manganese: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Molybdenum: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Molybdenum: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Fluoride: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Fluoride: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions
-:- Chromium: Absorption, transport, tissue distribution, Metabolic function, essentiality, Deficiency symptoms
-:- Chromium: Toxicity, Genetic diseases, Requirements, dietary sources, Micronutrient interactions

Measuring Food Intake


-:- Measuring Food Intake
-:- Indirect measurement of food intake
-:- Household-based surveys
-:- Direct measures of food intake
-:- Methods for measuring intake on specified days
-:- Methods for measuring intake over the longer term
-:- Sources of error in dietary studies
-:- Choosing a dietary assessment method
-:- Repeatability and Validity of dietary methods
-:- Biological measures to validate energy and nutrient intake
-:- Evaluation of food intake data
-:- Assessment of dietary adequacy
-:- Assessing food intake
-:- Food safety assessments

Food Composition


-:- Food Composition
-:- Foods - Food Composition
-:- Nutrients, nonnutrients and energy
-:- Information required on sources of data in tables
-:- Overcoming the inadequacies of food composition tables
-:- Nutrient losses and gains during food processing and preparation
-:- Bioavailability and glycemic index
-:- How to calculate a recipe not included in the database
-:- Description of food composition tables and databases and how to retrieve data
-:- Converting foods to nutrients

Food and Nutrition


-:- Reference points in human nutrition
-:- Exploration of dietary patterns
-:- Options to change food and nutrient intakes
-:- Global players in food and nutrition regulation
-:- FAO/WHO and Codex Alimentarius
-:- WTO: Sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade
-:- European Food Safety Authority
-:- EU nutrition and public health

Nutrition Research Methodology


-:- Nutrition Research Methodology
-:- Statistical analysis and experimental design - Nutrition Research Methodology
-:- In vitro studies - Nutrition Research Methodology
-:- Animal models in nutrition research - Nutrition Research Methodology
-:- Human studies - Nutrition Research Methodology
-:- Epidemiological designs - Nutrition Research Methodology

Food Safety


-:- Factors contributing to food safety concerns
-:- Food-borne bacteria
-:- Food-borne viruses
-:- Food-borne parasites
-:- Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and food
-:- Chemicals affecting food safety
-:- Food safety control programs

Food and Nutrition Related Diseases


-:- Food and Nutrition-Related Diseases: The Global Challenge
-:- Nutrition-related diseases in developed countries
-:- Nutrition-related diseases in developing countries
-:- HIV/AIDS - Food and Nutrition Related Diseases
-:- Global challenge to address malnutrition