Human Neuroanatomy(Fundamental and Clinical)

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Human Neuroanatomy(Fundamental and Clinical)

Human Neuroanatomy(Fundamental and Clinical)



Introduction to Neuroanatomy


Introduction to Neuroanatomy
What is Neuroanatomy?
Divisions of the Nervous System
Tissues constituting the nervous system
How the Nervous system can be affected by disease
Neuron Structure
Elementary Structure of a Typical Neuron
Grey and White Matter
Variability in Neuron Structure
Role of axoplasmic transport in spread of disease
Some features of dendrites
Sex chromatin in neurons
The Synapse - Human Neuroanatomy
Neurotransmitters
Classification of Synapses
Peripheral Nerves
Basic Structure of Peripheral Nerve Fibres
Classification of Fibres in Peripheral Nerves according to Diameter and Velocity of Conduction
Incisures of Schmidt Lanterman
Nodes of Ranvier
Some facts about myelination
Degeneration and Regeneration of Neurons
Neuroglia
Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Microglia
Functions of Neuroglia
Tumours of Nervous Tissue
A Brief Review of Techniques used in the Study of Neuroanatomy
Early Development of Nervous system
Faulty formation of neural tube
Formation of neurons and neuroglial cells
Neural Crest

The Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy and Some features of Internal Structure


The Spinal Cord : Gross Anatomy and Some features of Internal Structure
Spinal Nerves & Spinal Segments
Segmental Innervation: Dermatomes
Segmental Innervation of Muscles

Basic Neuronal Arrangements


Classification of neurons and of nerve fibres in peripheral nerves according to function
Somatic Efferent Neurons
Special Visceral Efferent Neurons (Branchiomotor Neurons)
General Visceral Efferent Neurons
Afferent Neurons
Arrangement of Neurons within the Central Nervous System
Projection, Association and Commissural Fibres

Sensory Receptors and Neuromuscular Junctions


Sensory Receptors
Exteroceptive Receptors
Proprioceptive Receptors
Neuromuscular Junctions
Structure of a Typical Motor End Plate
Some Facts about Muscle Action
Myasthenia Gravis

Internal Structure of the Spinal Cord


Internal Structure of the Spinal Cord
Grey Matter of the Spinal Cord
Subdivisions of Grey Matter
Significance of Neurons in Grey Matter of Spinal Cord
Spinal Reflexes
Myotatic or Stretch Reflexes
Superficial Reflexes
Development of the Spinal Cord
Preliminary Review of the Brainstem
The Medulla: gross anatomy
The Pons: gross anatomy
The Midbrain: gross anatomy

Preliminary Review of the Brainstem


Preliminary Review of the Internal Structure of the Brainstem
Subdivisions of Neural Tube

Gross Anatomy of the Cerebellum


Subdivisions of the Cerebellum - Gross Anatomy of the Cerebellum
Grey matter of the cerebellum - Gross Anatomy of the Cerebellum
White matter of the cerebellum - Gross Anatomy of the Cerebellum
Cerebellar Peduncles - Gross Anatomy of the Cerebellum
Development of the Cerebellum

Gross Anatomy of the Cerebral Hemispheres


Exterior of the Cerebral Hemispheres - Gross Anatomy of The Cerebral Hemispheres
Inferior Surface of Cerebrum - Gross Anatomy of The Cerebral Hemispheres
An Introduction to Some Structures within the Cerebral Hemispheres
Development of the Cerebral Hemisphere
Important Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
White Matter of Cerebral Hemispheres
Anomalies of the Brain and the Spinal Cord

Tracts of Spinal Cord and Brainstem


Tracts of Spinal Cord and Brainstem
Descending Tracts ending in the Spinal Cord
Descending Tracts ending in the Brainstem
Disorders of Motor Function
Ascending Tracts
Pathways connecting the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex
Ascending pathways ending in the brainstem
Sensory Disorders - Tracts of Spinal Cord and Brainstem
Spinocerebellar Pathways - Tracts of Spinal Cord and Brainstem
Disorders of Equilibrium - Tracts of Spinal Cord and Brainstem
Involvement of Spinal Cord in Disease

Cranial Nerve Nuclei


Cranial Nerve Nuclei
Somatic Efferent Nuclei - Cranial Nerve Nuclei
Special Visceral Efferent Nuclei - Cranial Nerve Nuclei
General Visceral Efferent Nuclei - Cranial Nerve Nuclei
General and Special Visceral Afferent Nuclei - Cranial Nerve Nuclei
General and Special Somatic Afferent Nuclei - Cranial Nerve Nuclei
Other Connections of Cranial Nerve Nuclei
Pathway of Hearing & Connections of Cochlear Nuclei
Connections of Vestibular Nuclei
Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus
Functional Components of Individual Cranial Nerves
Olfactory nerve and Optic nerve - Damage to Cranial Nerves and Testing
Oculomotor, Trochlear and Abducent Nerves - Damage to Cranial Nerves and Testing
Trigeminal nerve - Damage to Cranial Nerves and Testing
Facial nerve - Damage to Cranial Nerves and Testing
Vestibulocochlear nerve - Damage to Cranial Nerves and Testing
Glossopharyngeal nerve - Damage to Cranial Nerves and Testing
Vagus nerve (and cranial part of accessory) - Damage to Cranial Nerves and Testing
Accessory nerve (spinal part) - Damage to Cranial Nerves and Testing
Hypoglossal nerve - Damage to Cranial Nerves and Testing

Internal Structure of Brainstem


Medulla - Internal Structure of Brainstem
Pons - Internal Structure of Brainstem
The Midbrain - Internal Structure of Brainstem
Reticular Formation of the Brainstem - Internal Structure of Brainstem
Control of Eye Movements - Internal Structure of Brainstem
Development of the Medulla Oblongata
Development of Pons
Development of the Midbrain

Internal Structure of Cerebellum


Basic Structure of the Cerebellar Cortex
Main Connections of the Cerebellum
Connections between Cerebellum and Spinal Cord
Connections between Cerebellum and Cerebral Cortex
Functions of the Cerebellum
Few Details about the Cerebellar Cortex
Few Details of Cerebellar Connections
Connections of Cerebellar Nuclei: Afferents and Efferents
Disorders of Equilibrium - Cerebellum

The Diencephalon


The Thalamus (Dorsal Thalamus) - The Diencephalon
Internal Structure of the Thalamus
Connections of the Thalamus
Connections of Ventral Group of nuclei - Thalamus (Dorsal Thalamus)
Medial & Lateral Geniculate Bodies - Thalamus (Dorsal Thalamus)
The Hypothalamus - The Diencephalon
Subdivisions of the Hypothalamus
Hypothalamic nuclei
Connections of the Hypothalamus
Control of hypophysis cerebri by the hypothalamus
Functions of the Hypothalamus
Epithalamus - The Diencephalon
Ventral Thalamus - The Diencephalon
Subthalamic Nucleus
Development of the Diencephalon

The Basal Nuclei


The Basal Nuclei
Caudate Nucleus
The Lentiform Nucleus
Connections of the Basal Nuclei
Ventral striatum and pallidum
Abnormal Movements - The Basal Nuclei
Development of the Corpus Striatum

Further Consideration of the Cerebral Cortex


Structure of the Cerebral Cortex
Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex
Laminae of Cerebral Cortex
Further Consideration of Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Motor and Premotor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Sensory Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Visual Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Auditory (acoustic) Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Prefrontal Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Disorders of Memory and Behaviour
Some Features of Cortical Connections

The Olfactory and Limbic Regions


The Olfactory Region
The Olfactory Pathway
The Limbic Region
Connections of the Amygdaloid Nuclei
Septal Region
Hippocampal Formation
Fibre bundles of limbic region

Internal Capsule and Commissures of the Brain


The Internal Capsule of the Brain
Commissures of the Brain

The Visual Pathway


The Visual Pathway of the Brain
The Retina - Visual Pathway of the Brain
The Visual Field and Retinal Quadrants
Optic Nerve, Optic Chiasma & Optic Tract
The Lateral Geniculate Body
Geniculocalcarine Tract and Visual Cortex
Reflexes related to the Eyeball: Pupillary and Corneal Reflex

Autonomic Nervous System


Autonomic Nervous System
The Sympathetic Trunks - Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic Plexuses - Autonomic Nervous System
Preganglionic and Postganglionic Neurons
Some Further Details of Autonomic Neurons
Afferent autonomic pathways
Some Further Comments on Autonomic Afferents
Autonomic Nerve Supply of some Important Organs
Some Recent Developments about the Autonomic Nervous System

Ventricles of the Brain


Ventricles of the Brain
The Lateral Ventricles - Ventricles of the Brain
The Third Ventricle - Ventricles of the Brain
The Fourth Ventricle - Ventricles of the Brain
The Cerebrospinal Fluid - Ventricles of the Brain

Blood Supply of Central Nervous System


Blood Supply of the Spinal Cord - Blood Supply of Central Nervous System
Arteries Supplying the Brain - Blood Supply of Central Nervous System
Arterial Supply of the Cerebral Cortex - Blood Supply of Central Nervous System
Arteries Supplying the Interior of the Cerebral Hemisphere - Blood Supply of Central Nervous System
Arterial Supply of the Brainstem - Blood Supply of Central Nervous System
Venous Drainage of the Brain - Blood Supply of Central Nervous System
Blood-Brain Barrier
Control of Cerebral Blood Flow

Some Investigative Procedures


Some Investigative Procedures - Human Neuroanatomy



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