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Chapter: Human Neuroanatomy(Fundamental and Clinical): Blood Supply of Central Nervous System

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Arteries Supplying the Interior of the Cerebral Hemisphere - Blood Supply of Central Nervous System

Arteries Supplying the Interior of the Cerebral Hemisphere - Blood Supply of Central Nervous System
The main arteries supplying the internal capsule are the medial and lateral striate branches of the middle cerebral artery, the recurrent branch of the anterior cerebral, and the anterior choroidal artery.

Arteries Supplying the Interior of the Cerebral Hemisphere

Internal capsule

        The main arteries supplying the internal capsule are the medial and lateral striate branches of the middle cerebral artery, the recurrent branch of the anterior cerebral, and the anterior choroidal artery. The internal capsule may also receive direct branches from the internal carotid artery, and branches from the posterior communicating artery (Fig. 21.8).  


        The upper parts of the anterior limb, the genu, and the posterior limb are supplied by striate branches of the middle cerebral artery. The lower parts of these regions are supplied as follows.

1.              The lower part of the anterior limb is supplied by the recurrent branch of the anterior cerebral artery.

2.              The lower part of the genu is supplied by direct branches from the internal carotid, and from the posterior communicating artery.

3.              The lower part of the posterior limb is supplied by the anterior choroidal artery.

        The retrolentiform part of the internal capsule is supplied by the anterior choroidal artery. The sublentiform part is probably supplied by the anterior choroidal artery.

Thalamus

        The thalamus is supplied mainly by perforating branches of the posterior cerebral artery (Fig. 21.9). The posteromedial group of branches (also called thalamo-perforating arteries) supply the medial and anterior part. The posterolateral group (also called thalamo-geniculate branches) supply theposterior and lateral parts of the thalamus. The thalamus also receives some branches from the posterior communicating, anterior choroidal, posterior choroidal, and middle cerebral arteries.


Hypothalamus

       The anterior part of the hypothalamus is supplied by central branches of the anteromedial group (arising from the anterior cerebral artery). The posterior part is supplied by central branches of the posteromedial group (arising from the posterior cerebral and posterior communicating arteries).

Corpus Striatum

       The main arterial supply of the caudatenucleus and putamen is derived fromthe medial and lateral striate branches of the middle cerebral artery (Fig. 21.10). In addition, their anteriormost parts (including the head of the caudate nucleus) receive their blood supply through the recurrent branch of the anterior cerebral artery, and their posterior parts (including the tail of the caudate nucleus) through the anterior choroidal artery.


        The main supply of the globus pallidus is from the anterior choroidal artery. Its lateral segment also receives blood through the striate arteries. The medialmost part of the globus pallidus receives branches from the posterior communicating artery.



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