zoology

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zoology

BIODIVERSITY


=> Biodiversity Explanation and Biodiversity in India
=> Taxonomic systems
=> Introduction to taxa and species
=> Phenetic method or Numerical taxonomy and Cytotaxonomy and Chemotaxonomy and Palaeotaxonomy Explaination
=> Nomenclature methods and Basic principles of nomenclature and Identification keys
=> Methods of grouping animals
=> Phylum : Protozoa, Porifera and Coelenterata or Cnidaria
=> Phylum: Platyhelminthes
=> Phylum : Nematoda and Annelida
=> Phylum : Arthropoda
=> Phylum Mollusca and Phylum Echinodermata
=> Phylum Chordata and Diversity and General Characters of Chordates
=> Classification of Phylum Chordata
=> Sub phylum : Vertebrata (Craniata) and Classification of Vertebrata - Class : Pisces and Tetrapoda
=> Class : Amphibia - sub phylum Tetrapoda
=> Class : Amniota - Reptilia - sub phylum - Tetrapoda
=> Class : Aves - sub phylum : Tetrapoda
=> Class : Mammalia - Reptilia - sub phylum : Tetrapoda
=> Monotremata, Marsupialia and Placentalia -Classification of Class : Mammalia - Reptilia - sub phylum - Tetrapoda
=> Scientific Names of Animals
=> Plasmodium
=> Life cycle in the mosquito - sporogony
=> Control of Malaria
=> Types of Malaria
=> Earthworm : External features , External apertures
=> Earthworm - Body wall ,Body Cavity,Locomotion
=> Earthworm - Digestive System, Feeding
=> Earthworm - Circulatory System
=> Earthworm : Excretory System
=> Earthworm : Excretory System
=> Earthworm : Nervous System
=> Earthworm : Reproductive System
=> Pigeon : External features
=> Pigeon : The wings
=> Pigeon : Exoskeleton , Quill feather
=> Pigeon : Endoskeleton : Flight muscles, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor or subclavius, Coracobrachialis
=> Pigeon - Digestive system
=> Pigeon - Respiratory System
=> Pigeon - Circulatory system and Venous system
=> Nervous system and Sense organ of Pigeon
=> Pigeon - Urinogenital system and Male, Female reproductive organs

CELL BIOLOGY


=> Cell Biology
=> Microscopy and Anton van Leeuwenhoek simple microscope
=> Compound light, Dark field, Phase contrast, Oil - immersion and Electron microscope
=> Cytological Techniques
=> Plasma Membrane
=> Mitochondria
=> Ribosomes
=> Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum
=> Golgi apparatus
=> Lysosomes
=> Centrioles
=> Animal Nucleus or Human Nucleus
=> Chromosomes of Animal Nucleus or Human Nucleus
=> Cancer biology
=> Molecular biology of cancer
=> Types of cancer and factor causes cancer
=> Cancer and death
=> Management of cancer : Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy

HUMAN ANATOMY


=> History of Human anatomy
=> The Integumentary System - Skin and hypodermis
=> The Integumentary System - hypodermis, Epidermis, Callus, Skin color, Hair, glands, Nails
=> Human Skeletal System
=> Structure of a typical long bone
=> Skull - Human Skeletal system
=> Vertebrae - Human Skeletal system
=> Rib cage - Human Skeletal system
=> Appendicular skeleton - Pectoral girdle, Pectoral girdle, Pelvic girdle or pelvis, Wrist, Hand, Leg, Ankle, Foot, Kinds of joints, Fibrous joints, Cartilaginous joints, Synovial joints
=> Human Muscular System and Types of Muscular System
=> Skeletal muscles - Human Muscular System
=> Shapes of muscles and Naming of muscles - Human Muscular System
=> Distribution of human muscles - Muscles of the human head, Muscles of the Neck region, Muscles of the Trunk region, Muscles of the upper limb, Muscles of the lower limb
=> Human Entire Digestive system process with diagram - Mouth or Buccal cavity, Tongue, Teeth, Salivary glands, Pharynx, Stomach, Small intestine, Duodenum, Jejunum and ileum, Liver, Gall bladder, Pancreas, Caecum, Colon, Rectum, Anal canal
=> Human Respiratory system with diagram - Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Lungs, Thoracic wall and muscles of respirations
=> The Human Circulatory System - Systemic and Pulmonary circulations - Pulmonary circulation, Systemic circulation, Portal circulation
=> Components of Human Circulatory system : Blood vessels, Types of blood vessels, The Heart
=> The Human Heart structure with diagram
=> Human Lymphatic system - Lymphoid cells and tissues, Thymus, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Tonsils, The lymphatic circulation
=> The structure of a peripheral nerve : Central nervous system (C N S) Peripheral nervous system Autonomous nervous system , brain
=> Human Brain : Prosencephalon (Fore brain), Mesencephalon (mid brain), Rhombencephalon (hind brain), Brain stem, Pachymenix, Leptomeninges
=> The Eye - Sensory Organ
=> Ears (The organs of hearing) - The Sensory Organ
=> Endocrine system and glands : Pituitary gland (or) Hypophysis, thyroid, parathy roids, pancreas, adrenals, testes and ovaries
=> Urinary system : kidneys (renes), ureters, the uri-nary bladder (vesica urinaria) and the urethra
=> Male reproductive organs
=> Female reproductive organs

GENETICS


=> GENETICS
=> Quantitive inheritance - GENETICS
=> Genetics : Sex determination in Human beings
=> Male haploidy or Haplo-diploidy mechanism
=> Genetics : Sex - linked Inheritance
=> Genetics : Pleiotropy

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY


=> Developmental Biology - Gametogenesis, Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis, Fertilization
=> Types of eggs
=> Cleavage and types - Frog's egg
=> Gastrulation in frog embryo
=> Organogenesis of Frog

ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY


=> Corals - reef builders - ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY
=> Earthworm - Vermiculture
=> Uses and types of Beneficial Insects : Productive Insects - Honey bee, Silk worms, Lac insects. Helpful Insects : Insect - Predators
=> Prawns, Lobsters and Crabs - ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY
=> Pearl Oyster
=> Fishes - Nutritive value
=> Guano (Bird excreta)
=> Aquarium - Setting up an aquarium tank
=> Vivarium ( Zoo ) and List of important Zoos
=> Disease causing organisms - Vectors : Housefly - Musca domestica, Sand flies - Phlebotomus papatasi, Rat fleas - Xenopsylla cheopis, The human louse - Pediculus humanus, Mosquitoes : Anopheles, Culex, Aedes sp
=> Poisonous Organisms : Physalia, Scorpion, Centipede, Honey bees and Wasps, Poisonous fishes, Poisonous snakes
=> Poisonous snakes : Cobra, Krait, Vipers, Sea Snakes and Poison Apparatus of a Snake
=> Fouling Organisms
=> Pests - Pests of Crops : Cotton, Paddy, Sugarcane, Vegetables, Coconut palm, Stored grains, household goods

ORIGIN OF LIFE


=> ORIGIN OF LIFE - Theories
=> Geological time scale : Palaeozoic era, Mesozoic era, Cenozoic era
=> Fossils : Fossilization, Evolutionary significance of fossils, List of Important fossils
=> Extinct animals-mass extinction : Causes and Pattern of extiniction

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY


=> Nutrition : Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.), Proteins(Polypeptides), Lipids, Vitamins
=> Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.)
=> Proteins(Polypeptides)
=> Lipids
=> Vitamins : functions of vitamins and Vitamin Deficiency Ailments
=> Minerals, Water, Balanced diet, Calorie values, Obesity
=> The digestive system and The process of digestion
=> Dental Caries (Tooth decay) : Symptoms, Root Canal Treatment
=> Peptic ulcer and Hernia : Causes of Peptic ulcer and Types of Hernia
=> Appendicitis, Gall Stones, Hepatitis, Hernia, Peptic ulcer
=> Types of fractures, Mechanism of fracture, Healing of Bones in fracture, Dislocation of joints, Physiotherapy and rehabilitation, Arthiritis , Orthopedics, Rickets and steomalacia
=> Structure of a skeletal muscle, sarcomere
=> Mechanism and Types of muscle contraction
=> Benefits of aerobic exercise
=> Myasthenia Gravis Muscle Disease
=> Process of pulmonary respiration
=> Mechanism of Human Breathing : Expiration , Inspiration
=> Gaseous exchange in the alveoli
=> Herring - Breuer reflex
=> Lungs Disease : Tuberculosis (TB), Herring - Breuer reflex, Acute and Chronic Bronchitis
=> Human Circulatory System : Functioning of Human heart
=> Myocardial infarction : Symptoms, Causes, Risk factors
=> Angina pectoris
=> Angiogram : Coronary Angiography and Coronary Angioplasty
=> Atherosclerosis, Heart block, Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
=> ICCU - (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)
=> Blood Pressure : Intensive of hypertension
=> Composition of plasma : Components with Functions
=> Types of blood cells or corpuscles
=> Human Nervous system
=> Human brain
=> Types of memory
=> Types of sleep
=> Human Brain Stroke and Brain haemorrhage
=> Alzheimer's Disease, Meningitis (Brain fever), Conditioned reflex
=> Right and Left Human brain concept
=> Spinal cord functioning
=> Functions of Endocrine glands
=> Pituitary gland and The hormones of anterior pituitary
=> Thyroid gland and thyroxine
=> Human Insulin
=> Human Glucagon
=> Gonads : Testis and Overies
=> Focusing Mechanism in the Human Eye
=> Human eye : Errors of refraction
=> Retinopathy - Human Eye Disease
=> Human Eye : Cataract, Lens Replacement
=> Human Eye : Glaucoma, Nyctalopia Disorder, Infections, Symptoms, Treatment
=> EAR - Some Information
=> Mechanism of hearing - Human Ear
=> Defects of the Human ear
=> Human Hearing Aid
=> Noise pollution
=> Human Skin and Functions of skin
=> Functions of Human Skin Melanin
=> Human Skin grafting and Dermatitis
=> Human Tongue and Mechanism of Stimulation
=> Human Excretion
=> Mechanism of urine formation
=> Renal Failure, Dialysis and Kidney Machines
=> Human Kidney stone (Calculus) And Kidney transplantation
=> Diabetes mellitus : Symptoms, Causes, prevention
=> Functioning of male reproductive system
=> Functioning of female reproductive system
=> Female Menstrual cycle - 28 days
=> In vitro fertilization (Test tube babies) and Birth control
=> Contraception - Methods to prevention of pregnancy

MICROBIOLOGY


=> History of Medical microbiology
=> Structure of Viruses And Viral genetics
=> Viral Diseases
=> Cultivation (culture) of Animal viruses
=> Bacterial structure And Culture
=> Bacterial Genetics
=> Bacterial Diseases
=> Protozoan microbiology
=> Larval microbiology
=> AIDS (HIV) Structure, its control, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Control and Management

IMMUNOLOGY


=> IMMUNOLOGY : Innate Immunity (Non-specific) And Acquired Immunity (Specific immunity)
=> Primary Lymphoid Organ Thymus
=> Peripheral Lymphoid Organs : Lymph nodes, Spleen
=> Secondary Lymphoid Organs : Mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT)
=> Antibodies - Immunoglobulins, Region of polypeptide chains, Transplantation immunology
=> Classification of grafts
=> Immune system disorders

MODERN GENETICS


=> Human Genetics - Karyotyping
=> Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology)
=> Genetic Diseases
=> Human Genome Project (HGP)
=> Cloning : Differentiation, Cloning of Sheep (Mechanism), Ethical Issues, Merits and Demerits of cloning
=> Transgenic organisms : Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
=> Gene therapy
=> Bioinformatics : Definition, History, Applications
=> Scope of Genetic Engineering And Bioinformatics
=> Nucleic acid, Protein sequence databases And Genome sequencing, DNA library
=> Protein Structure, Protein Model And Uses
=> Human population and explosion - Issues

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE


=> Reasons for the Explosion. Impacts Of Growing Population and Environmental
=> Global warming : Green house effect
=> Types of Greenhouse Gases
=> Effects of Global warming
=> Ozone layer depletion : Ozone hole, Preventing And Effect of Ozone depletions
=> Waste management
=> Waste management : Classification of wastes
=> Management of hazardous wastes
=> Management of non-hazardous wastes- Solid Waste Management
=> Biodiversity conservation (Biosphere reserves) Government and non Governmental organizations
=> Energy crisis and its environmental impact
=> Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis
=> Environmental impacts : Thermal, Hydel, Nuclear Power, Solar energy, Fossil fuels
=> Poverty and Environmental : issues, alleviation
=> Fresh water crisis and management
=> Freshwater resources
=> Freshwater shortages
=> Freshwater Management

APPLIED BIOLOGY


=> Important cattle breeds and their characteristics
=> cattle breeds : Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds, Dual purpose breeds, Draught breeds
=> Milch breeds (or) Dairy Cattle breeds : Sindhi (Red Sindhi, Red Karachi), Gir (Kathiawarhi, Surti)
=> Dual purpose Cattle breeds - Ongole : Nellore
=> Draught Cattle breeds : Kangayam, Hallikar, Jersey
=> Common diseases and control for Cattle
=> Poultry Breeds
=> Poultry Farming methods
=> Factors involved in brooding
=> Pisciculture : Characters of cultivable fish
=> Fish Pond : Types and Preparation of pond, Management and Feeding
=> Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu (India)
=> Stethoscope and Uses of Stethoscope
=> Sphygmomanometer
=> Haemocytometer
=> Urine - Sugar analysis
=> ECG-Electrocardiogram
=> Computed Tomography (CT)(OR) Computerized axial tomography (CAT) - Advantages and Uses
=> Types of Endoscopy
=> Artificial Pacemaker And Autoanalyser

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION


=> THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Lamarckism
=> THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Neo-lamarckism
=> THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Darwinism
=> Modern concept of Natural Selection (or) Modern synthetic theory of Evolution



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