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Biodiversity Explanation and Biodiversity in India
Taxonomic systems
Introduction to taxa and species
Phenetic method or Numerical taxonomy and Cytotaxonomy and Chemotaxonomy and Palaeotaxonomy Explaination
Nomenclature methods and Basic principles of nomenclature and Identification keys
Methods of grouping animals
Phylum : Protozoa, Porifera and Coelenterata or Cnidaria
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Phylum : Nematoda and Annelida
Phylum : Arthropoda
Phylum Mollusca and Phylum Echinodermata
Phylum Chordata and Diversity and General Characters of Chordates
Classification of Phylum Chordata
Sub phylum : Vertebrata (Craniata) and Classification of Vertebrata - Class : Pisces and Tetrapoda
Class : Amphibia - sub phylum Tetrapoda
Class : Amniota - Reptilia - sub phylum - Tetrapoda
Class : Aves - sub phylum : Tetrapoda
Class : Mammalia - Reptilia - sub phylum : Tetrapoda
Monotremata, Marsupialia and Placentalia -Classification of Class : Mammalia - Reptilia - sub phylum - Tetrapoda
Scientific Names of Animals
Life cycle in the mosquito - sporogony
Control of Malaria
Types of Malaria
Earthworm : External features , External apertures
Earthworm - Body wall ,Body Cavity,Locomotion
Earthworm - Digestive System, Feeding
Earthworm - Circulatory System
Earthworm : Excretory System
Earthworm : Excretory System
Earthworm : Nervous System
Earthworm : Reproductive System
Pigeon : External features
Pigeon : The wings
Pigeon : Exoskeleton , Quill feather
Pigeon : Endoskeleton : Flight muscles, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor or subclavius, Coracobrachialis
Pigeon - Digestive system
Pigeon - Respiratory System
Pigeon - Circulatory system and Venous system
Nervous system and Sense organ of Pigeon
Pigeon - Urinogenital system and Male, Female reproductive organs


Cell Biology
Microscopy and Anton van Leeuwenhoek simple microscope
Compound light, Dark field, Phase contrast, Oil - immersion and Electron microscope
Cytological Techniques
Plasma Membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Animal Nucleus or Human Nucleus
Chromosomes of Animal Nucleus or Human Nucleus
Cancer biology
Molecular biology of cancer
Types of cancer and factor causes cancer
Cancer and death
Management of cancer : Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy


History of Human anatomy
The Integumentary System - Skin and hypodermis
The Integumentary System - hypodermis, Epidermis, Callus, Skin color, Hair, glands, Nails
Human Skeletal System
Structure of a typical long bone
Skull - Human Skeletal system
Vertebrae - Human Skeletal system
Rib cage - Human Skeletal system
Appendicular skeleton - Pectoral girdle, Pectoral girdle, Pelvic girdle or pelvis, Wrist, Hand, Leg, Ankle, Foot, Kinds of joints, Fibrous joints, Cartilaginous joints, Synovial joints
Human Muscular System and Types of Muscular System
Skeletal muscles - Human Muscular System
Shapes of muscles and Naming of muscles - Human Muscular System
Distribution of human muscles - Muscles of the human head, Muscles of the Neck region, Muscles of the Trunk region, Muscles of the upper limb, Muscles of the lower limb
Human Entire Digestive system process with diagram - Mouth or Buccal cavity, Tongue, Teeth, Salivary glands, Pharynx, Stomach, Small intestine, Duodenum, Jejunum and ileum, Liver, Gall bladder, Pancreas, Caecum, Colon, Rectum, Anal canal
Human Respiratory system with diagram - Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Lungs, Thoracic wall and muscles of respirations
The Human Circulatory System - Systemic and Pulmonary circulations - Pulmonary circulation, Systemic circulation, Portal circulation
Components of Human Circulatory system : Blood vessels, Types of blood vessels, The Heart
The Human Heart structure with diagram
Human Lymphatic system - Lymphoid cells and tissues, Thymus, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Tonsils, The lymphatic circulation
The structure of a peripheral nerve : Central nervous system (C N S) Peripheral nervous system Autonomous nervous system , brain
Human Brain : Prosencephalon (Fore brain), Mesencephalon (mid brain), Rhombencephalon (hind brain), Brain stem, Pachymenix, Leptomeninges
The Eye - Sensory Organ
Ears (The organs of hearing) - The Sensory Organ
Endocrine system and glands : Pituitary gland (or) Hypophysis, thyroid, parathy roids, pancreas, adrenals, testes and ovaries
Urinary system : kidneys (renes), ureters, the uri-nary bladder (vesica urinaria) and the urethra
Male reproductive organs
Female reproductive organs


Quantitive inheritance - GENETICS
Genetics : Sex determination in Human beings
Male haploidy or Haplo-diploidy mechanism
Genetics : Sex - linked Inheritance
Genetics : Pleiotropy


Developmental Biology - Gametogenesis, Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis, Fertilization
Types of eggs
Cleavage and types - Frog's egg
Gastrulation in frog embryo
Organogenesis of Frog


Corals - reef builders - ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY
Earthworm - Vermiculture
Uses and types of Beneficial Insects : Productive Insects - Honey bee, Silk worms, Lac insects. Helpful Insects : Insect - Predators
Prawns, Lobsters and Crabs - ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY
Pearl Oyster
Fishes - Nutritive value
Guano (Bird excreta)
Aquarium - Setting up an aquarium tank
Vivarium ( Zoo ) and List of important Zoos
Disease causing organisms - Vectors : Housefly - Musca domestica, Sand flies - Phlebotomus papatasi, Rat fleas - Xenopsylla cheopis, The human louse - Pediculus humanus, Mosquitoes : Anopheles, Culex, Aedes sp
Poisonous Organisms : Physalia, Scorpion, Centipede, Honey bees and Wasps, Poisonous fishes, Poisonous snakes
Poisonous snakes : Cobra, Krait, Vipers, Sea Snakes and Poison Apparatus of a Snake
Fouling Organisms
Pests - Pests of Crops : Cotton, Paddy, Sugarcane, Vegetables, Coconut palm, Stored grains, household goods


Geological time scale : Palaeozoic era, Mesozoic era, Cenozoic era
Fossils : Fossilization, Evolutionary significance of fossils, List of Important fossils
Extinct animals-mass extinction : Causes and Pattern of extiniction


Nutrition : Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.), Proteins(Polypeptides), Lipids, Vitamins
Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.)
Vitamins : functions of vitamins and Vitamin Deficiency Ailments
Minerals, Water, Balanced diet, Calorie values, Obesity
The digestive system and The process of digestion
Dental Caries (Tooth decay) : Symptoms, Root Canal Treatment
Peptic ulcer and Hernia : Causes of Peptic ulcer and Types of Hernia
Appendicitis, Gall Stones, Hepatitis, Hernia, Peptic ulcer
Types of fractures, Mechanism of fracture, Healing of Bones in fracture, Dislocation of joints, Physiotherapy and rehabilitation, Arthiritis , Orthopedics, Rickets and steomalacia
Structure of a skeletal muscle, sarcomere
Mechanism and Types of muscle contraction
Benefits of aerobic exercise
Myasthenia Gravis Muscle Disease
Process of pulmonary respiration
Mechanism of Human Breathing : Expiration , Inspiration
Gaseous exchange in the alveoli
Herring - Breuer reflex
Lungs Disease : Tuberculosis (TB), Herring - Breuer reflex, Acute and Chronic Bronchitis
Human Circulatory System : Functioning of Human heart
Myocardial infarction : Symptoms, Causes, Risk factors
Angina pectoris
Angiogram : Coronary Angiography and Coronary Angioplasty
Atherosclerosis, Heart block, Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
ICCU - (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)
Blood Pressure : Intensive of hypertension
Composition of plasma : Components with Functions
Types of blood cells or corpuscles
Human Nervous system
Human brain
Types of memory
Types of sleep
Human Brain Stroke and Brain haemorrhage
Alzheimer's Disease, Meningitis (Brain fever), Conditioned reflex
Right and Left Human brain concept
Spinal cord functioning
Functions of Endocrine glands
Pituitary gland and The hormones of anterior pituitary
Thyroid gland and thyroxine
Human Insulin
Human Glucagon
Gonads : Testis and Overies
Focusing Mechanism in the Human Eye
Human eye : Errors of refraction
Retinopathy - Human Eye Disease
Human Eye : Cataract, Lens Replacement
Human Eye : Glaucoma, Nyctalopia Disorder, Infections, Symptoms, Treatment
EAR - Some Information
Mechanism of hearing - Human Ear
Defects of the Human ear
Human Hearing Aid
Noise pollution
Human Skin and Functions of skin
Functions of Human Skin Melanin
Human Skin grafting and Dermatitis
Human Tongue and Mechanism of Stimulation
Human Excretion
Mechanism of urine formation
Renal Failure, Dialysis and Kidney Machines
Human Kidney stone (Calculus) And Kidney transplantation
Diabetes mellitus : Symptoms, Causes, prevention
Functioning of male reproductive system
Functioning of female reproductive system
Female Menstrual cycle - 28 days
In vitro fertilization (Test tube babies) and Birth control
Contraception - Methods to prevention of pregnancy


History of Medical microbiology
Structure of Viruses And Viral genetics
Viral Diseases
Cultivation (culture) of Animal viruses
Bacterial structure And Culture
Bacterial Genetics
Bacterial Diseases
Protozoan microbiology
Larval microbiology
AIDS (HIV) Structure, its control, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Control and Management


IMMUNOLOGY : Innate Immunity (Non-specific) And Acquired Immunity (Specific immunity)
Primary Lymphoid Organ Thymus
Peripheral Lymphoid Organs : Lymph nodes, Spleen
Secondary Lymphoid Organs : Mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT)
Antibodies - Immunoglobulins, Region of polypeptide chains, Transplantation immunology
Classification of grafts
Immune system disorders


Human Genetics - Karyotyping
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology)
Genetic Diseases
Human Genome Project (HGP)
Cloning : Differentiation, Cloning of Sheep (Mechanism), Ethical Issues, Merits and Demerits of cloning
Transgenic organisms : Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Gene therapy
Bioinformatics : Definition, History, Applications
Scope of Genetic Engineering And Bioinformatics
Nucleic acid, Protein sequence databases And Genome sequencing, DNA library
Protein Structure, Protein Model And Uses
Human population and explosion - Issues


Reasons for the Explosion. Impacts Of Growing Population and Environmental
Global warming : Green house effect
Types of Greenhouse Gases
Effects of Global warming
Ozone layer depletion : Ozone hole, Preventing And Effect of Ozone depletions
Waste management
Waste management : Classification of wastes
Management of hazardous wastes
Management of non-hazardous wastes- Solid Waste Management
Biodiversity conservation (Biosphere reserves) Government and non Governmental organizations
Energy crisis and its environmental impact
Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis
Environmental impacts : Thermal, Hydel, Nuclear Power, Solar energy, Fossil fuels
Poverty and Environmental : issues, alleviation
Fresh water crisis and management
Freshwater resources
Freshwater shortages
Freshwater Management


Important cattle breeds and their characteristics
cattle breeds : Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds, Dual purpose breeds, Draught breeds
Milch breeds (or) Dairy Cattle breeds : Sindhi (Red Sindhi, Red Karachi), Gir (Kathiawarhi, Surti)
Dual purpose Cattle breeds - Ongole : Nellore
Draught Cattle breeds : Kangayam, Hallikar, Jersey
Common diseases and control for Cattle
Poultry Breeds
Poultry Farming methods
Factors involved in brooding
Pisciculture : Characters of cultivable fish
Fish Pond : Types and Preparation of pond, Management and Feeding
Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu (India)
Stethoscope and Uses of Stethoscope
Urine - Sugar analysis
Computed Tomography (CT)(OR) Computerized axial tomography (CAT) - Advantages and Uses
Types of Endoscopy
Artificial Pacemaker And Autoanalyser


Modern concept of Natural Selection (or) Modern synthetic theory of Evolution

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