It refers to an eroded area of the tissue lining in the stomach or duodenum. The lining of stomach or duodenum are protected from the effects of HCl by a layer of mucous. If the mucous layer is damaged, the acid may cause inflammation and erosion of the lining. It is known as peptic ulcer. Ulcer is of two types namely, duodenal and gastric. Of the two, duodenal ulcer is more common. It occurs in people in the age group of 25 - 45 years. Gastric ulcer is more common in persons above the age of 50 years. Peptic ulcer is a very common gastric ailment.
Causes:- The ulcer is mostly due to infections by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. It may also be caused due to uncontrolled usage of aspirin or certain anti inflammatory drugs such as Ibuprofen. Ulcer may also be caused due to smoking, alcohol, coffiene and psychological stress. In severe peptic ulcer, upper digestive tract endoscopy is done to assess the extent of damage. A bleeding or perforated ulcer requires hospitalization. Common treatment of ulcer is aimed at healing the ulcer and preventing its recurrence. Life style changes such as giving up smoking and alcohol may be required. Anxiety, stress, strain and worrying should be avoided.
Hernia is commonly called 'ruptures'. A hernia occurs at a weaker region in the abdominal muscle. Due to increased pressure in the abdomen, the muscles become streched at the weak point, the pressure may be due to lifting heavy weights, continuously. Due to hernia, a visible bulge can develop. It will contain fatty tissues or part of the intestine. Abdominal hernias are common in men having heavy manual job.
In hernia, a section of intestine may become twisted and get traped inside the bulge. The blood supply may be cut off. This is known as strangulated hernia. If it causes severe pain immediate surgery is needed. Hernia can occur in other areas of the body.
Hernia repair - For hernia often a simple surgery is needed. It is done by using local or general anaesthesia.