Management of non-hazardous wastes- Solid Waste Management
1. Sanitary land fills : The refuse is spread in a hollow land or in a trench and compacted with a layer of clear sand fill. The sanitary land fills are far more desirable than open dumps but the ground water contamination is always a potential problem. Once a land fill operation has been completed the site must be inspected periodically. This land fill is suitable for recreational activities such as parks and play ground.
2. Incineration : Municipal incinerators burn combustible solid waste and melt certain non-combustible materials. Since the high temperature destroys pathogens and their vectors, it is a good method of disposal from health point of view. The incineration can reduce the volume of solid waste by 80 to 90 percent.
3. Reuse and recycling techniques : Resource recovery is a broad term that is used for the retrieval of valuable materials or energy from a waste. The separating out of materials such as rubber, glass, paper and scrap metal from refuse and reprocessing them for reuse is named as reclamation of waste or recycling.
Paper (54% recovery) can be repulped and reprocessed into recycled paper, cardboard, and other paper products; finally ground and sold as cellulose insulators or shredded and composted.
Glass (20% recovery) can be crushed, remelted and made into new containers or crushes used as a substitute for gravel or sand in construction materials such as concrete and asphalt.
Some forms of plastics (2.2 % recovery) can be remelted and fabricated into carpet fibre, fill for insulated apparel, irrigation drainage, tiles and sheet plastics.
Metals can be melted and refabricated (39% recovery).
Food wastes and yard wastes (leaves, grass etc.) can be composted to produce humus soil conditioner.
Textiles can be shredded and used to strengthen recycled paper products.
Old tyres can be remelted or shredded and incorporated into highway asphalt.
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11th 12th standard bio zoology Human Body higher secondary school : Management of non-hazardous wastes- Solid Waste Management |