The well being of human population is directly linked to the natural resources of a country. Natural resources are of various kinds. They are plants, animals, land, water and minerals. Animal husbandry and dairying have been mainly rural-based, generating employment and revenue among the rural people. Extensive studies have been undertaken by ICAR (Indian Council for Agricultural Research), State Agricultural Universities, and non-governmental research organizations, etc, to improve the livestock and its management. Intensive crossbreeding programme in cattle has led to the evolution of high-yielding milch animals.
Dairy operation consists of proper maintenance of cattle, the collection of milk, processing the milk, and its by products. Dairying is the production and marketing of milk and its products.
Dairy technology made rapid growth in the later half of the 19th century. New methods and equipments are available for machine-milking of cows. Artificial feeds and nutrient foods are manufactured to improve the milk yield of cows. Breeding techniques and applications of biotechnology in livestock improvement programme of cattle have tremendously increased the production of new breeds with high milking capacities. Since milk forms a staple food, majority of the Indian population rely on milk for their protein supplement.
Among mammals, cattles belong to the genus Bos (ruminant quadrupeds), and the species being divided into Bos indicus(humped cattle), Bos taurus (without any hump), Bos bubalis (the buffalo).
In India at present there are twenty six well defined breeds of cattle and six breeds of buffaloes found spread all over the country. Cattles are classified under three groups based on the purpose they serve to man. They are Dairy breeds, Dual purpose breeds andDraught breeds. A breed is a group of animals of a species which has for a long period been bred among themselves. The members of the breed have closely resembling characters and these characters are hereditarily transmissible to young ones.
Dairy purpose Dual purpose Draught purpose
cows are high milk cows are meant for Bullocks are good
yielders, with extended milk and bullocks draught animals
lactation. are meant for while the cows are
draught. poor milk yielders.
1. Sahiwal 1. Hariana 1. Amritmahal
2. Sindhi 2. Ongole 2. Kangayam
3. Gir 3. Tharparker 3. Malvi
4. Umblachery 4. Kankrej 4. Siri
5. Karan swiss 5. Hallikar