Bioinformatics deals with the creation and maintenance of databases of biological information such as the nucleic acid, gene sequences and protein sequences. It has its own applications in gene therapy, diagnostics, drug designing, crop improvement, biochemical processes etc. It involves the data analysis or creation of electronic databases on genomes and protein molecules.
From the beginning of the post Mendelian's period, genetic principles propounded by various geneticists have revealed the functional behaviour of discrete hereditary particles called the genes, in the expression of various morphological (phenotypical) and biochemical traits of organisms. During the last three decades, the advancement in molecular biology, the invention of computers, ultra developments in scientific methodologies and introduction of instrumentation at nano level, have paved the way for the origin of bioinformatics.
The preliminary discoveries such as the amino acid sequence of bovine insulin (1950s), nucleic acid sequence of yeast alaine tRNA with 77 bases (1960s); X-ray crystallographic structure of protein, formed the basis and original databases for data entries and file making. With further advancements made in computational methods , empolying rapid search algorithms (BLAST) with hundreds of command options and input formats, the birth of bioinformatical science has been made.
Bioinformatics is a synergistic study of both biotechnology and information technology. In biotechnology living organisms of micro level and macro level organizations are employed, and manipulated towards harvesting beneficial products to human. In recent years Biotechnology is turning into an industrial science through genetic engineering.
Genetic engineering helps the scientists to incorporate a single gene into an organism, and synthesize the desirable product without affecting other genes and their functions. In this way the biological systems or the microbial systems are manipulated.