Human Genome Project (HGP)
Human genome project involves the human genome programmes to understand the genetic composition and genetic instruction that make up a
human. The human genome is nothing but the DNA that resides in every human cell. The location and composition of 30,000 (thirty thousand) genes in human have been identified by sequencing the genome. It is known that the genes carry the information for the synthesis of various proteins. These pro-teins take up different profiles such as enzymes, hormones and antigens, which are responsible for various physiological and biochemical functions. The completion of the human genome project, by determining the DNA sequence of all the 23 pairs of chromosomes is a turning point and a break through in biology and medicine.
Human gene bank or the genome database is the collection of sequenced genes and cataloging of them for future use. They represent the fundamental data.
Human genome analysis involves the analysis of proteins. Analysing different proteins and locating them in cells and identifying their respective genes, which encode them in the cells, represent the science of Proteomics. For identifying the proteins, the cells, mRNAs are probed. Researchers have identified about 60000 (Sixty thousand) different m-RNAs in human beings. From the mRNAs the respective genes/DNA are traced. The above said DNA is known as cDNA (Complementary DNA).
In the human genome project many disease related genes have been mapped to specific chromosomal regions.
In the human genome project, proteins of different families which are involved in development and cellular processes such as neuronal function, homeostasis, immune function and cytoskeletal complexity have been identified.
1. The sequence of human genome will enable geneticists to cure the killer diseases like cancer.
2. It may enable us to understand more about the diseases and thereby to design drugs.
3. HGP aids in diagnosis of defective genes that cause disease.
4. As HGP may serve as a tool to Eugenical concept, scientists can create superior, disease free human beings in future.
5. It helps in somatic cell gene therapy and germ line gene therapy.