# Physics - 2

## Electrostatics

Electrostatics - frictional electricity
Basic properties of electric charge
Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field, Electric Field Intensity (E)
Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines of forces
Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between electric field and potential
Gauss's law and its applications
Electrostatic induction
Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor
Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and construction

## Current Electricity

Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity
Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel
Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer
Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors
Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors
Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell
Electric energy and electric power
Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification of Faraday's laws of electrolysis
Electric cells and Voltaic cell
Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell
Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary cells

## Effects of Electric Current

Applications of Joule heating
Seebeck effect
Neutral and Inversion temperature
Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (?)
Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (?)
Thermopile
Biot - Savart Law
Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent galvanometer
Solenoid and Right hand palm rule
Magnetic Lorentz force
Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of Cyclotron
Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer
Heating effect : Joule's law
Verification of Joule's law
Magnetic effect of current
Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current
Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current
Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction
Ampere's Circuital Law
Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current
Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron
Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field
Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field
Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors
Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field
Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter
Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter
Current loop as a magnetic dipole
The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron

## Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current

AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) - Three phase
Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current
Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a transformer
Electromagnetic induction
Magnetic flux
Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction
Lenz's law
Self Induction
Coefficient of self induction
Self inductance of a long solenoid
Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction
Methods of producing induced emf
AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase
Eddy currents
Transformer
Long distance power transmission
Alternating current
AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor
Choke coil: Construction and Working

## Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics

Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life
Uses of electromagnetic spectrum
Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum, Absorption Spectra
Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence
Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic theory, Quantum theory
Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect
Wave front : Huygen's principle
Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory
Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction
Diffraction grating explanation with Theory
Polarisation of transverse waves
Double refraction
Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid
Nicol prism and Types of crystals
Optical activity
Specific rotation
Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics
Characteristics of electromagnetic waves
Hertz experiment
Types of spectra
Theories of light
Scattering of light
Wave front
Superposition principle
Diffraction
Polarisation

## Atomic Physics

Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of electrons
Properties of Cathode rays
Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays
Thomson's method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an electron
Millikan's oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron
Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks
Rutherford's ? - particle scattering experiment
Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks
Bohr atom model
Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram
Excitation and ionization potential of an atom
Shortcomings of Bohr's theory
Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks
Production of X-rays - Modern Coolidge tube
Types of X-rays: Soft and Hard X-rays
Properties of X-rays
Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X-rays
Laue experiment
Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction
Bragg's X-ray spectrometer
X-ray spectra - continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra
Moseley's law and Applications of Moseley's law
Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X-rays
Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser
Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser

## Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Relativity

Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation
Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect
Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current
Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential
Laws of photoelectric emission
Einstein's photoelectric equation
Photoelectric cells and their types, applications
de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron
Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations
Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference
Special theory of relativity
Einstein's mass-energy equivalence

## Nuclear Physics

Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size
Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve
Bainbridge mass spectrometer - Determination of isotopic masses of nuclei
Properties of Alpha ?, beta ? and gamma ? rays
Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons
Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators
Geiger - Muller counter: Construction and Operation
Energy released in Nuclear fission
Atom bomb - Principle and construction
Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses
Nuclear power programme in India
Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy
Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers
Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles

## Semiconductor Devices and their Applications

Semiconductors: Energy band in solids
Semiconductors: Valence band, conduction band and forbidden energy gap
Insulators, semiconductors and conductors - forbidden energy gap
Electrons and holes in semiconductors
Intrinsic semiconductor
Extrinsic semiconductor: N and P -type semiconductor
PN Junction diode: Forward and Reverse bias characteristics
PN junction diode as Half wave and Bridge wave rectifier
Avalanche and zener Breakdown mechanisms
Zener diode and Zener diode as voltage regulator
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Junction transistor
Working of a PNP transistor
Transistor circuit configurations
Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration
Transistor as a switch
Transistor amplifier - Operating point, Working
Transistor biasing - Voltage divider bias
Single stage CE amplifier
Multistage amplifiers
Feedback in amplifiers- Principle of feedback and
Transistor oscillators - Barkhausen condition for oscillation
Generation of sinusoidal waves by a tuned LC circuit
Essentials of LC oscillator
Colpitt's oscillator
Integrated circuit (IC)
Digital electronics - Analog signal, Digital signal and logic levels
Basic logic gates using discrete components
Operational amplifier (OP - AMP)
Circuit symbol and Pin-out configuration of an OP-AMP
Basic OP-AMP circuits: Inverting, Non-inverting, Summing, Difference amplifier
Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO)
Multimeter

## Communication Systems

Propagation of electromagnetic waves
Amplitude modulation (AM): Modulation factor, Analysis, Advantages, Limitations
Phase modulation (PM)
Radio transmission - AM, FM transmitter and AF, RF section
Television: Construction and Working of Vidicon camera tube
Television: Scanning and synchronising
Monochrome picture tube
Monochrome TV transmission