Aquaculture Engineering

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Aquaculture Engineering

Aquaculture Engineering



Introduction


Aquaculture engineering
Classification of aquaculture
The farm: technical components in a Aquaculture system
Future trends: increased importance of aquaculture engineering

Water Transport


Water Transport in Aquaculture
Pipes: materials, Classification, Pressure class
Valves - Pipe and pipe parts
Pipe parts - fittings
Pipe connections - jointing
Mooring of pipes
Ditches for pipes
Water flow in channels and pipe systems
Head loss in pipelines
Head loss in single parts (fittings)
Pumps
Types of pump
Pump height, Cavitation and Net positive suction head (NPSH)
Pumping of water requires energy
Centrifugal and propeller pumps
Pump performance curves and working point for centrifugal pumps
Change of water flow or pressure
Regulation of flow from selected pumps

Water Quality and Water Treatment an Introduction


Increased focus on water quality
Inlet water
Outlet water
Water treatment in Aquaculture

Adjustment of pH


Adjustment of pH - Aquaculture Engineering
Problems with low pH - Aquaculture Engineering
pH of different water sources - Aquaculture Engineering
pH adjustment - Aquaculture Engineering
Examples of methods for pH adjustment: Lime, Seawater, Lye or hydroxides - Aquaculture Engineering

Removal of Particles


Removal of Particles - Aquaculture Engineering
Characterization of the water - Aquaculture Engineering
Methods for particle removal in fish farming
Mechanical filters and micro screens - Methods for particle removal in fish farming
Depth filtration granular medium filters - Methods for particle removal in fish farming
Settling or gravity filters - Methods for particle removal in fish farming
Integrated treatment systems - Methods for particle removal in fish farming
Hydraulic loads on filter units - Aquaculture Engineering
Purification efficiency - Aquaculture Engineering
Dual drain tank - Aquaculture Engineering
Sludge production and utilization - Aquaculture Engineering
Local ecological solutions - Aquaculture Engineering

Disinfection


Disinfection - Aquaculture Engineering
Basis of disinfection - Aquaculture Engineering
Chick’s law and Watson’s law - law for disinfection
Ultraviolet light - Disinfection in Aquaculture Engineering
Ozone - Disinfection in Aquaculture Engineering
Photozone - Disinfection methods in Aquaculture Engineering
Heat treatment - Disinfection methods in Aquaculture Engineering
Chlorine - Disinfection methods in Aquaculture Engineering
Changing the pH - Disinfection methods in Aquaculture Engineering
Natural methods: ground filtration or constructed wetland - Disinfection methods in Aquaculture Engineering

Heating and Cooling


Heating and Cooling - Aquaculture Engineering
Heating requires energy - Aquaculture Engineering
Methods for heating water - Aquaculture Engineering
Immersion heaters - Aquaculture Engineering
Oil and gas burners heaters - Aquaculture Engineering
Why use heat exchangers? - Aquaculture Engineering
How is the heat transferred ? - Aquaculture Engineering
Factors affecting heat transfer - Aquaculture Engineering
Important parameters when calculating the size of heat exchangers - Aquaculture Engineering
Types of heat exchanger
Flow pattern in heat exchangers
Materials in heat exchangers
Fouling - Aquaculture Engineering
Why use heat pumps? - Aquaculture Engineering
Construction and function of a heat pump
Log pressure–enthalpy (p-H) in heat pump
Coefficient of performance in heat pump
Installations of heat pumps - Aquaculture Engineering
Management and maintenance of heat pumps - Aquaculture Engineering
Composite heating systems - Aquaculture Engineering
Chilling of water - Aquaculture Engineering

Aeration and Oxygenation


Aeration and Oxygenation - Aquaculture Engineering
Gases in water
Gas theory Aeration: Equilibrium, Gas transfer
Design and construction of aerators: Basic principles, Evaluation criteria
Example of designs for different types of aerator: Gravity, Surface, Subsurface aerators
Oxygenation of water
Theory of oxygenation
Design and construction of oxygen injection systems
Evaluation of methods for injecting oxygen gas
Examples of oxygen injection system designs
Oxygen gas characteristics
Sources of oxygen

Ammonia Removal


Ammonia Removal - Aquaculture Engineering
Biological removal of ammonium ion
Nitrification
Construction of nitrification filters
Management of biological filters
Example of biofilter design
Denitrification
Chemical removal of ammonia: Principle, Construction - Aquaculture Engineering

Recirculationand Water Re


Recirculationand Water Re-use Systems
Advantages and disadvantages of re-use systems in Aquaculture Engineering
Definitions for re-use or recycling systems
Degree of re-use
Water exchange in relation to amount of fish
Degree of purification
Mass flow in the system - Theoretical models for construction of re-use systems
Water requirements of Aquaculture re-use systems
Connection between outlet concentration, degree of re-use and effectiveness of the water treatment system
Components in a Aquaculture re-use system
Design of a re-use system in Aquaculture

Production Units a Classification


Production Units: a Classification - Aquaculture Engineering
Classification of production units - Aquaculture Engineering
Possibilities for controlling environmental impact - Aquaculture Engineering

Egg Storage and Hatching Equipment


Introduction of Egg Storage and Hatching Equipment in Aquaculture Engineering
Systems where the Fish eggs stay pelagic in Aquaculture Engineering
The incubator - Aquaculture Engineering
Systems where the Fish eggs lie on the bottom - Aquaculture
Systems where the eggs lie in the same unit from spawning to fry ready for start feeding
Systems where the eggs must be removed before hatching
System where storing, hatching and firs feeding are carried out in the same unit

Tanks Basins and Other Closed Production Units


Introduction of Tanks, Basins and Other Closed Production Units - Aquaculture Engineering
Types of closed production units - Aquaculture Engineering
How much water should be supplied? - Aquaculture Engineering
Water exchange rate - Aquaculture Engineering
Ideal or non-ideal mixing and water exchange
Tank design - Aquaculture Engineering
Flow pattern and self-cleaning - Aquaculture Engineering
Water inlet design - Aquaculture Engineering
Water outlet or drain - Aquaculture Engineering
Dual drain - Aquaculture Engineering

Ponds


Ponds: Introduction
The ecosystem
Different production ponds
Pond types
Construction principles of Pond - Aquaculture
Drainable or non drainable Pond - Aquaculture
Size and construction of Pond - Aquaculture
Site selection for Aquaculture Pond
Water supply for Aquaculture Pond
The inlet of Aquaculture Pond
The outlet - drainage for Aquaculture Pond
Aquaculture Pond layout

Sea Cages


Sea Cages
Site selection - Aquaculture Sea Cages
What creates waves?
Waves - Environmental factors affecting a floating construction in Sea Cages
Wind - Environmental factors affecting a floating construction in Sea Cages
Wind, Oceani, Tidal Current - Environmental factors affecting a floating construction in Sea Cages
Ice - Environmental factors affecting a floating construction in Sea Cages
Construction of sea cages
Examples of Sea cage constructions
Cage collar or framework
Mooring systems
Design of the mooring system
Description of the single components in a pre-stressed mooring system
Fixing point - Mooring systems
Mooring lines - Mooring systems
Buoys - Mooring systems
Anchors - Mooring systems
Calculation of current, wave and wind forces on a sea cage farm
Calculation of the size of the mooring system
Calculation of sizes for mooring lines
Control of mooring systems

Feeding Systems


Why use automatic feeding systems in Aquaculture ? What can be automated?
Selection of feeding system
Feeding system requirements in Aquaculture Engineering
Types of feeding equipment
Feed blowers - feeding equipment in Aquaculture
Feed dispensers - feeding equipment in Aquaculture
Demand feeders - feeding equipment in Aquaculture
Automatic feeders and its Types, components - feeding equipment in Aquaculture
Central feeding system - feeding equipment in Aquaculture
Feed control - Feeding Systems in Aquaculture
Feed control systems - Feeding Systems in Aquaculture
Dynamic feeding systems - Feeding Systems in Aquaculture

Internal Transport and Size Grading


Internal Transport and Size Grading: Introduction - Aquaculture Engineering
The importance of fish handling
Why move the fish? - fish handling
Why size grade in fish handling?
Negative effects of handling the fish
Moving fish with a supply of external energy - Methods and equipment for internal transport
Methods for moving of fish without the need for external energy - Methods and equipment for internal transport
Methods and equipment for size grading of fish

Transport of Live Fish


Transport of Live Fish: Introduction
Preparation for Transport of Live Fish
Land Transport of Live Fish
Sea transport of Live Fish
Air transport of Live Fish
Other transport methods of Live Fish
Cleaning and re-use of water - Transport of Live Fish
Use of additives - Transport of Live Fish

Instrumentation and Monitoring


Instrumentation and Monitoring in Aquaculture
Construction of measuring instruments
Instruments for measuring water quality - Aquaculture Engineering
Measuring temperature - Instruments for measuring water quality in Aquaculture
Measuring oxygen content of the water in Aquaculture
Measuring pH - Instruments for measuring water quality in Aquaculture
Measuring conductivity and salinity - Instruments for measuring water quality in Aquaculture
Measuring total gas pressure and nitrogen saturation - Instruments for measuring water quality in Aquaculture
Instruments for measuring physical conditions - Aquaculture Engineering
Equipment for counting fish, measuring fish size and estimation of total biomass
Monitoring systems - Aquaculture Engineering

Buildings and Superstructures


Why use buildings in Aquaculture Engineering?
Types, shape and roof design of Buildings in Aquaculture Engineering
Load carrying systems - Buildings and Superstructures in Aquaculture Engineering
Materials - Buildings and Superstructures in Aquaculture Engineering
Prefabricate or build on site? - Buildings and Superstructures in Aquaculture Engineering
Insulated or not? - Buildings and Superstructures in Aquaculture Engineering
Foundations and ground conditions - Buildings and Superstructures in Aquaculture Engineering
Design of major parts - Buildings and Superstructures in Aquaculture Engineering
Ventilation and climatization - Buildings and Superstructures in Aquaculture Engineering

Design and Construction of Aquaculture Facilities


Design and Construction of Aquaculture Facilities: Introduction
Land-based hatchery, juvenile and on-growing production plant in Aquaculture Engineering
Water intake and transfer - Land-based hatchery, juvenile and on-growing production plant in Aquaculture Engineering
Water treatment department - Land-based hatchery, juvenile and on-growing production plant in Aquaculture Engineering
Production rooms in Aquaculture Engineering
Feed storage - Aquaculture Engineering
Disinfection barrier - Aquaculture Engineering
Other rooms - Aquaculture Engineering
Outlet water treatment - Aquaculture Engineering
Important equipment - Aquaculture Engineering
On growing production, sea cage farms
Site selection - On growing production, sea cage farms
The cages and the fixed equipment
The base station - On growing production, sea cage farms
Net handling - On growing production, sea cage farms
Boat - On growing production, sea cage farms

Planning Aquaculture Facilities


Planning Aquaculture Facilities
The planning process - Planning Aquaculture Facilities
Site selection - Planning Aquaculture Facilities
Production plan - Planning Aquaculture Facilities
Room programme - Planning Aquaculture Facilities
Necessary analyses - Planning Aquaculture Facilities
Drawing up alternative solutions - Planning Aquaculture Facilities
Evaluation of and choosing between the alternative solutions - Planning Aquaculture Facilities
Finishing plans, detailed planning - Planning Aquaculture Facilities
Function test of the plant - Planning Aquaculture Facilities



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