There are several ways to classify ponds: one is based on construction and another on whether it is possible to drain the pond or not.
Based on their construction three types of ponds can be identified: watershed, excavated and embankment or levee ponds (Fig. 14.3). Watershed ponds utilize the terrain features; for instance, a ravine can be dammed so the construction is quite simple. However, there are few sites that satisfy the requirements for a watershed pond, so this is not a very common pond type. An excavated pond is simply a hole in the ground which is filled with water. Part can be below the water table and in this way water infiltrates into the pond, but this construction is little used.
The main type of construction is the embankment or levee pond. There are several ways to establish such ponds: they can be at ground level, or the levee can be above and the bottom below ground level. For the first type it is necessary to supply material; for the second type the excavated material can be used to construct the leveess which will reduce the cost of establishing the pond. Levee ponds can be constructed in a flat landscape, and large areas can be used for pond production. It is important that the levee is sufficiently wide to carry traffic, for instance for feeding, maintenance or harvesting.
When constructing the pond it is an advantage to ensure that it is possible to tap the water to a lower level to make drainage possible. Eventually a canal drainage system can be excavated in conjunction with the pond area.
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