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BIODIVERSITY


-:- Biodiversity Explanation and Biodiversity in India
-:- Taxonomic systems
-:- Introduction to taxa and species
-:- Phenetic method or Numerical taxonomy and Cytotaxonomy and Chemotaxonomy and Palaeotaxonomy Explaination
-:- Nomenclature methods and Basic principles of nomenclature and Identification keys
-:- Methods of grouping animals
-:- Phylum : Protozoa, Porifera and Coelenterata or Cnidaria
-:- Phylum: Platyhelminthes
-:- Phylum : Nematoda and Annelida
-:- Phylum : Arthropoda
-:- Phylum Mollusca and Phylum Echinodermata
-:- Phylum Chordata and Diversity and General Characters of Chordates
-:- Classification of Phylum Chordata
-:- Sub phylum : Vertebrata (Craniata) and Classification of Vertebrata - Class : Pisces and Tetrapoda
-:- Class : Amphibia - sub phylum Tetrapoda
-:- Class : Amniota - Reptilia - sub phylum - Tetrapoda
-:- Class : Aves - sub phylum : Tetrapoda
-:- Class : Mammalia - Reptilia - sub phylum : Tetrapoda
-:- Monotremata, Marsupialia and Placentalia -Classification of Class : Mammalia - Reptilia - sub phylum - Tetrapoda
-:- Scientific Names of Animals
-:- Plasmodium
-:- Life cycle in the mosquito - sporogony
-:- Control of Malaria
-:- Types of Malaria
-:- Earthworm : External features , External apertures
-:- Earthworm - Body wall ,Body Cavity,Locomotion
-:- Earthworm - Digestive System, Feeding
-:- Earthworm - Circulatory System
-:- Earthworm : Excretory System
-:- Earthworm : Excretory System
-:- Earthworm : Nervous System
-:- Earthworm : Reproductive System
-:- Pigeon : External features
-:- Pigeon : The wings
-:- Pigeon : Exoskeleton , Quill feather
-:- Pigeon : Endoskeleton : Flight muscles, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor or subclavius, Coracobrachialis
-:- Pigeon - Digestive system
-:- Pigeon - Respiratory System
-:- Pigeon - Circulatory system and Venous system
-:- Nervous system and Sense organ of Pigeon
-:- Pigeon - Urinogenital system and Male, Female reproductive organs

CELL BIOLOGY


-:- Cell Biology
-:- Microscopy and Anton van Leeuwenhoek simple microscope
-:- Compound light, Dark field, Phase contrast, Oil - immersion and Electron microscope
-:- Cytological Techniques
-:- Plasma Membrane
-:- Mitochondria
-:- Ribosomes
-:- Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum
-:- Golgi apparatus
-:- Lysosomes
-:- Centrioles
-:- Animal Nucleus or Human Nucleus
-:- Chromosomes of Animal Nucleus or Human Nucleus
-:- Cancer biology
-:- Molecular biology of cancer
-:- Types of cancer and factor causes cancer
-:- Cancer and death
-:- Management of cancer : Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy

HUMAN ANATOMY


-:- History of Human anatomy
-:- The Integumentary System - Skin and hypodermis
-:- The Integumentary System - hypodermis, Epidermis, Callus, Skin color, Hair, glands, Nails
-:- Human Skeletal System
-:- Structure of a typical long bone
-:- Skull - Human Skeletal system
-:- Vertebrae - Human Skeletal system
-:- Rib cage - Human Skeletal system
-:- Appendicular skeleton - Pectoral girdle, Pectoral girdle, Pelvic girdle or pelvis, Wrist, Hand, Leg, Ankle, Foot, Kinds of joints, Fibrous joints, Cartilaginous joints, Synovial joints
-:- Human Muscular System and Types of Muscular System
-:- Skeletal muscles - Human Muscular System
-:- Shapes of muscles and Naming of muscles - Human Muscular System
-:- Distribution of human muscles - Muscles of the human head, Muscles of the Neck region, Muscles of the Trunk region, Muscles of the upper limb, Muscles of the lower limb
-:- Human Entire Digestive system process with diagram - Mouth or Buccal cavity, Tongue, Teeth, Salivary glands, Pharynx, Stomach, Small intestine, Duodenum, Jejunum and ileum, Liver, Gall bladder, Pancreas, Caecum, Colon, Rectum, Anal canal
-:- Human Respiratory system with diagram - Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Lungs, Thoracic wall and muscles of respirations
-:- The Human Circulatory System - Systemic and Pulmonary circulations - Pulmonary circulation, Systemic circulation, Portal circulation
-:- Components of Human Circulatory system : Blood vessels, Types of blood vessels, The Heart
-:- The Human Heart structure with diagram
-:- Human Lymphatic system - Lymphoid cells and tissues, Thymus, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Tonsils, The lymphatic circulation
-:- The structure of a peripheral nerve : Central nervous system (C N S) Peripheral nervous system Autonomous nervous system , brain
-:- Human Brain : Prosencephalon (Fore brain), Mesencephalon (mid brain), Rhombencephalon (hind brain), Brain stem, Pachymenix, Leptomeninges
-:- The Eye - Sensory Organ
-:- Ears (The organs of hearing) - The Sensory Organ
-:- Endocrine system and glands : Pituitary gland (or) Hypophysis, thyroid, parathy roids, pancreas, adrenals, testes and ovaries
-:- Urinary system : kidneys (renes), ureters, the uri-nary bladder (vesica urinaria) and the urethra
-:- Male reproductive organs
-:- Female reproductive organs

GENETICS


-:- GENETICS
-:- Quantitive inheritance - GENETICS
-:- Genetics : Sex determination in Human beings
-:- Male haploidy or Haplo-diploidy mechanism
-:- Genetics : Sex - linked Inheritance
-:- Genetics : Pleiotropy

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY


-:- Developmental Biology - Gametogenesis, Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis, Fertilization
-:- Types of eggs
-:- Cleavage and types - Frog's egg
-:- Gastrulation in frog embryo
-:- Organogenesis of Frog

ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY


-:- Corals - reef builders - ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY
-:- Earthworm - Vermiculture
-:- Uses and types of Beneficial Insects : Productive Insects - Honey bee, Silk worms, Lac insects. Helpful Insects : Insect - Predators
-:- Prawns, Lobsters and Crabs - ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY
-:- Pearl Oyster
-:- Fishes - Nutritive value
-:- Guano (Bird excreta)
-:- Aquarium - Setting up an aquarium tank
-:- Vivarium ( Zoo ) and List of important Zoos
-:- Disease causing organisms - Vectors : Housefly - Musca domestica, Sand flies - Phlebotomus papatasi, Rat fleas - Xenopsylla cheopis, The human louse - Pediculus humanus, Mosquitoes : Anopheles, Culex, Aedes sp
-:- Poisonous Organisms : Physalia, Scorpion, Centipede, Honey bees and Wasps, Poisonous fishes, Poisonous snakes
-:- Poisonous snakes : Cobra, Krait, Vipers, Sea Snakes and Poison Apparatus of a Snake
-:- Fouling Organisms
-:- Pests - Pests of Crops : Cotton, Paddy, Sugarcane, Vegetables, Coconut palm, Stored grains, household goods

ORIGIN OF LIFE


-:- ORIGIN OF LIFE - Theories
-:- Geological time scale : Palaeozoic era, Mesozoic era, Cenozoic era
-:- Fossils : Fossilization, Evolutionary significance of fossils, List of Important fossils
-:- Extinct animals-mass extinction : Causes and Pattern of extiniction

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY


-:- Nutrition : Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.), Proteins(Polypeptides), Lipids, Vitamins
-:- Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.)
-:- Proteins(Polypeptides)
-:- Lipids
-:- Vitamins : functions of vitamins and Vitamin Deficiency Ailments
-:- Minerals, Water, Balanced diet, Calorie values, Obesity
-:- The digestive system and The process of digestion
-:- Dental Caries (Tooth decay) : Symptoms, Root Canal Treatment
-:- Peptic ulcer and Hernia : Causes of Peptic ulcer and Types of Hernia
-:- Appendicitis, Gall Stones, Hepatitis, Hernia, Peptic ulcer
-:- Types of fractures, Mechanism of fracture, Healing of Bones in fracture, Dislocation of joints, Physiotherapy and rehabilitation, Arthiritis , Orthopedics, Rickets and steomalacia
-:- Structure of a skeletal muscle, sarcomere
-:- Mechanism and Types of muscle contraction
-:- Benefits of aerobic exercise
-:- Myasthenia Gravis Muscle Disease
-:- Process of pulmonary respiration
-:- Mechanism of Human Breathing : Expiration , Inspiration
-:- Gaseous exchange in the alveoli
-:- Herring - Breuer reflex
-:- Lungs Disease : Tuberculosis (TB), Herring - Breuer reflex, Acute and Chronic Bronchitis
-:- Human Circulatory System : Functioning of Human heart
-:- Myocardial infarction : Symptoms, Causes, Risk factors
-:- Angina pectoris
-:- Angiogram : Coronary Angiography and Coronary Angioplasty
-:- Atherosclerosis, Heart block, Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
-:- ICCU - (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)
-:- Blood Pressure : Intensive of hypertension
-:- Composition of plasma : Components with Functions
-:- Types of blood cells or corpuscles
-:- Human Nervous system
-:- Human brain
-:- Types of memory
-:- Types of sleep
-:- Human Brain Stroke and Brain haemorrhage
-:- Alzheimer's Disease, Meningitis (Brain fever), Conditioned reflex
-:- Right and Left Human brain concept
-:- Spinal cord functioning
-:- Functions of Endocrine glands
-:- Pituitary gland and The hormones of anterior pituitary
-:- Thyroid gland and thyroxine
-:- Human Insulin
-:- Human Glucagon
-:- Gonads : Testis and Overies
-:- Focusing Mechanism in the Human Eye
-:- Human eye : Errors of refraction
-:- Retinopathy - Human Eye Disease
-:- Human Eye : Cataract, Lens Replacement
-:- Human Eye : Glaucoma, Nyctalopia Disorder, Infections, Symptoms, Treatment
-:- EAR - Some Information
-:- Mechanism of hearing - Human Ear
-:- Defects of the Human ear
-:- Human Hearing Aid
-:- Noise pollution
-:- Human Skin and Functions of skin
-:- Functions of Human Skin Melanin
-:- Human Skin grafting and Dermatitis
-:- Human Tongue and Mechanism of Stimulation
-:- Human Excretion
-:- Mechanism of urine formation
-:- Renal Failure, Dialysis and Kidney Machines
-:- Human Kidney stone (Calculus) And Kidney transplantation
-:- Diabetes mellitus : Symptoms, Causes, prevention
-:- Functioning of male reproductive system
-:- Functioning of female reproductive system
-:- Female Menstrual cycle - 28 days
-:- In vitro fertilization (Test tube babies) and Birth control
-:- Contraception - Methods to prevention of pregnancy

MICROBIOLOGY


-:- History of Medical microbiology
-:- Structure of Viruses And Viral genetics
-:- Viral Diseases
-:- Cultivation (culture) of Animal viruses
-:- Bacterial structure And Culture
-:- Bacterial Genetics
-:- Bacterial Diseases
-:- Protozoan microbiology
-:- Larval microbiology
-:- AIDS (HIV) Structure, its control, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Control and Management

IMMUNOLOGY


-:- IMMUNOLOGY : Innate Immunity (Non-specific) And Acquired Immunity (Specific immunity)
-:- Primary Lymphoid Organ Thymus
-:- Peripheral Lymphoid Organs : Lymph nodes, Spleen
-:- Secondary Lymphoid Organs : Mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT)
-:- Antibodies - Immunoglobulins, Region of polypeptide chains, Transplantation immunology
-:- Classification of grafts
-:- Immune system disorders

MODERN GENETICS


-:- Human Genetics - Karyotyping
-:- Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology)
-:- Genetic Diseases
-:- Human Genome Project (HGP)
-:- Cloning : Differentiation, Cloning of Sheep (Mechanism), Ethical Issues, Merits and Demerits of cloning
-:- Transgenic organisms : Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
-:- Gene therapy
-:- Bioinformatics : Definition, History, Applications
-:- Scope of Genetic Engineering And Bioinformatics
-:- Nucleic acid, Protein sequence databases And Genome sequencing, DNA library
-:- Protein Structure, Protein Model And Uses
-:- Human population and explosion - Issues

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE


-:- Reasons for the Explosion. Impacts Of Growing Population and Environmental
-:- Global warming : Green house effect
-:- Types of Greenhouse Gases
-:- Effects of Global warming
-:- Ozone layer depletion : Ozone hole, Preventing And Effect of Ozone depletions
-:- Waste management
-:- Waste management : Classification of wastes
-:- Management of hazardous wastes
-:- Management of non-hazardous wastes- Solid Waste Management
-:- Biodiversity conservation (Biosphere reserves) Government and non Governmental organizations
-:- Energy crisis and its environmental impact
-:- Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis
-:- Environmental impacts : Thermal, Hydel, Nuclear Power, Solar energy, Fossil fuels
-:- Poverty and Environmental : issues, alleviation
-:- Fresh water crisis and management
-:- Freshwater resources
-:- Freshwater shortages
-:- Freshwater Management

APPLIED BIOLOGY


-:- Important cattle breeds and their characteristics
-:- cattle breeds : Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds, Dual purpose breeds, Draught breeds
-:- Milch breeds (or) Dairy Cattle breeds : Sindhi (Red Sindhi, Red Karachi), Gir (Kathiawarhi, Surti)
-:- Dual purpose Cattle breeds - Ongole : Nellore
-:- Draught Cattle breeds : Kangayam, Hallikar, Jersey
-:- Common diseases and control for Cattle
-:- Poultry Breeds
-:- Poultry Farming methods
-:- Factors involved in brooding
-:- Pisciculture : Characters of cultivable fish
-:- Fish Pond : Types and Preparation of pond, Management and Feeding
-:- Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu (India)
-:- Stethoscope and Uses of Stethoscope
-:- Sphygmomanometer
-:- Haemocytometer
-:- Urine - Sugar analysis
-:- ECG-Electrocardiogram
-:- Computed Tomography (CT)(OR) Computerized axial tomography (CAT) - Advantages and Uses
-:- Types of Endoscopy
-:- Artificial Pacemaker And Autoanalyser

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION


-:- THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Lamarckism
-:- THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Neo-lamarckism
-:- THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Darwinism
-:- Modern concept of Natural Selection (or) Modern synthetic theory of Evolution
Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman

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