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12th Standard Higher secondary Second Year

Physics -

Physics

Electrostatics


-:- Electrostatics - frictional electricity
-:- Basic properties of electric charge
-:- Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field, Electric Field Intensity (E)
-:- Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines of forces
-:- Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between electric field and potential
-:- Gauss's law and its applications
-:- Electrostatic induction
-:- Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor
-:- Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and construction

Current Electricity


-:- Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity
-:- Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel
-:- Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer
-:- Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors
-:- Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors
-:- Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell
-:- Electric energy and electric power
-:- Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification of Faraday's laws of electrolysis
-:- Electric cells and Voltaic cell
-:- Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell
-:- Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary cells

Effects of Electric Current


-:- Applications of Joule heating
-:- Seebeck effect
-:- Neutral and Inversion temperature
-:- Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π)
-:- Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ)
-:- Thermopile
-:- Biot - Savart Law
-:- Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent galvanometer
-:- Solenoid and Right hand palm rule
-:- Magnetic Lorentz force
-:- Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of Cyclotron
-:- Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer
-:- Heating effect : Joule's law
-:- Verification of Joule's law
-:- Magnetic effect of current
-:- Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current
-:- Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current
-:- Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction
-:- Ampere's Circuital Law
-:- Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current
-:- Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron
-:- Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field
-:- Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field
-:- Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors
-:- Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field
-:- Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter
-:- Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter
-:- Current loop as a magnetic dipole
-:- The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current


-:- AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) - Three phase
-:- Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current
-:- Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a transformer
-:- Electromagnetic induction
-:- Magnetic flux
-:- Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction
-:- Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction
-:- Lenz's law
-:- Self Induction
-:- Coefficient of self induction
-:- Self inductance of a long solenoid
-:- Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction
-:- Methods of producing induced emf
-:- AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase
-:- Eddy currents
-:- Transformer
-:- Long distance power transmission
-:- Alternating current
-:- AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor
-:- Choke coil: Construction and Working

Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics


-:- Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life
-:- Uses of electromagnetic spectrum
-:- Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum, Absorption Spectra
-:- Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence
-:- Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic theory, Quantum theory
-:- Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect
-:- Wave front : Huygen's principle
-:- Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
-:- Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory
-:- Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction
-:- Diffraction grating explanation with Theory
-:- Polarisation of transverse waves
-:- Double refraction
-:- Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid
-:- Nicol prism and Types of crystals
-:- Optical activity
-:- Specific rotation
-:- Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics
-:- Characteristics of electromagnetic waves
-:- Hertz experiment
-:- Types of spectra
-:- Theories of light
-:- Scattering of light
-:- Wave front
-:- Superposition principle
-:- Diffraction
-:- Polarisation

Atomic Physics


-:- Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of electrons
-:- Properties of Cathode rays
-:- Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays
-:- Thomson's method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an electron
-:- Millikan's oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron
-:- Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks
-:- Rutherford's α - particle scattering experiment
-:- Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks
-:- Bohr atom model
-:- Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram
-:- Excitation and ionization potential of an atom
-:- Shortcomings of Bohr's theory
-:- Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks
-:- Production of X-rays - Modern Coolidge tube
-:- Types of X-rays: Soft and Hard X-rays
-:- Properties of X-rays
-:- Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X-rays
-:- Laue experiment
-:- Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction
-:- Bragg's X-ray spectrometer
-:- X-ray spectra - continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra
-:- Moseley's law and Applications of Moseley's law
-:- Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X-rays
-:- Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser
-:- Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
-:- Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
-:- Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Relativity


-:- Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation
-:- Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect
-:- Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current
-:- Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential
-:- Laws of photoelectric emission
-:- Einstein's photoelectric equation
-:- Photoelectric cells and their types, applications
-:- de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron
-:- Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations
-:- Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference
-:- Special theory of relativity
-:- Einstein's mass-energy equivalence

Nuclear Physics


-:- Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size
-:- Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve
-:- Bainbridge mass spectrometer - Determination of isotopic masses of nuclei
-:- Nuclear force and Radioactivity
-:- Properties of Alpha α, beta β and gamma γ rays
-:- Radioactive displacement law
-:- Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons
-:- Artificial radioactivity
-:- Applications of radio-isotopes
-:- Biological hazards of nuclear radiations
-:- Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators
-:- Geiger - Muller counter: Construction and Operation
-:- Energy released in Nuclear fission
-:- Radioactive Chain reaction
-:- Atom bomb - Principle and construction
-:- Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses
-:- Nuclear power programme in India
-:- Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy
-:- Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers
-:- Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles

Semiconductor Devices and their Applications


-:- Semiconductors: Energy band in solids
-:- Semiconductors: Valence band, conduction band and forbidden energy gap
-:- Insulators, semiconductors and conductors - forbidden energy gap
-:- Electrons and holes in semiconductors
-:- Intrinsic semiconductor
-:- Extrinsic semiconductor: N and P -type semiconductor
-:- PN Junction diode: Forward and Reverse bias characteristics
-:- PN junction diode as Half wave and Bridge wave rectifier
-:- Avalanche and zener Breakdown mechanisms
-:- Zener diode and Zener diode as voltage regulator
-:- Light Emitting Diode (LED)
-:- Junction transistor
-:- Working of a PNP transistor
-:- Transistor circuit configurations
-:- Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration
-:- Transistor as a switch
-:- Transistor amplifier - Operating point, Working
-:- Transistor biasing - Voltage divider bias
-:- Single stage CE amplifier
-:- Multistage amplifiers
-:- Feedback in amplifiers- Principle of feedback and
-:- Transistor oscillators - Barkhausen condition for oscillation
-:- Generation of sinusoidal waves by a tuned LC circuit
-:- Essentials of LC oscillator
-:- Colpitt's oscillator
-:- Integrated circuit (IC)
-:- Digital electronics - Analog signal, Digital signal and logic levels
-:- Basic logic gates using discrete components
-:- Operational amplifier (OP - AMP)
-:- Circuit symbol and Pin-out configuration of an OP-AMP
-:- Basic OP-AMP circuits: Inverting, Non-inverting, Summing, Difference amplifier
-:- Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO)
-:- Multimeter

Communication Systems


-:- Propagation of electromagnetic waves
-:- Amplitude modulation (AM): Modulation factor, Analysis, Advantages, Limitations
-:- Frequency modulation (FM): Advantages and Disadvantages
-:- Phase modulation (PM)
-:- Radio transmission - AM, FM transmitter and AF, RF section
-:- Radio reception: simple, AM and FM receiver
-:- Television: Construction and Working of Vidicon camera tube
-:- Television: Scanning and synchronising
-:- Monochrome picture tube
-:- Monochrome TV transmission
-:- Monochrome TV receiver
-:- RADAR: Principle, Applications, Transmission and reception of radar
-:- Analog communication and digital communication
-:- Modem and Fax (or) Facsimile
-:- Wire and Cable
-:- Fiber optical communication: Advantages, Applications
-:- Satellite Communication: Merits and Demerits
Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman Mahendra Varman

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