Zoology 12th Std

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Zoology 12th Std

UNIT I

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms


=> Reproduction in Organisms
=> Modes of reproduction
=> Asexual reproduction
=> Sexual reproduction
=> Reproduction in Organisms: Summary
=> Reproduction in Organisms: Evaluation

Chapter 2: Human Reproduction


=> Human Reproduction
=> Human reproductive system
=> Gametogenesis
=> Spermatogenesis
=> Structure of human spermatozoan
=> Oogenesis
=> Structure of ovum
=> Menstural cycle
=> Menstrual disorders
=> Fertilisation and implantation
=> Maintenance of pregnancy and embryonic development
=> Parturition and lactation
=> Human Reproduction: Summary
=> Human Reproduction: Evaluation

Chapter 3: Reproductive Health


=> Reproductive Health
=> Need for reproductive health-Problems and strategies
=> Amniocentesis and its statutory ban
=> Social impact of sex ratio, female foeticide and infanticide
=> Population explosion and birth control methods
=> Medical termination of pregnancy (MTP)
=> Sexually transmitted diseases (STD)
=> Infertility
=> Assisted reproductive technology (ART)
=> Detection of foetal disorders during early pregnancy
=> Reproductive Health: Summary
=> Reproductive Health: Evaluation

UNIT II

Chapter 4: Principles of Inheritance and Variation


=> Principles of Inheritance and Variation
=> Multiple alleles
=> Human Blood Groups
=> Genetic control of Rh factor
=> Sex Determination
=> Sex Linked Inheritance
=> Karyotyping
=> Pedigree Analysis
=> Mendelian disorders
=> Chromosomal Abnormalities
=> Extra chromosomal / cytoplasmic inheritance
=> Eugenics, Euphenics and Euthenics
=> Principles of Inheritance and Variation: Summary
=> Principles of Inheritance and Variation: Evaluation

Chapter 5: Molecular Genetics


=> Molecular Genetics
=> Gene as the functional unit of inheritance
=> In search of the genetic material
=> DNA is the genetic material
=> Chemistry of Nucleic Acids
=> RNA world
=> Properties of genetic material (DNA versus RNA)
=> Packaging of DNA helix
=> DNA Replication
=> Transcription
=> Genetic Code
=> tRNA - the adapter molecule
=> Mechanism of Translation
=> Regulation of gene expression
=> Human Genome Project (HGP)
=> DNA fingerprinting technique
=> Molecular Genetics: Summary
=> Molecular Genetics: Evaluation

Chapter 6: Evolution


=> Evolution
=> Origin of life - Evolution of life forms
=> Geological time scale
=> Biological evolution
=> Experimental approach to the origin of life
=> Evidences for biological evolution
=> Theories of biological evolution
=> Mechanism of evolution
=> Hardy - Weinberg Principle
=> Origin and Evolution of Man
=> Isolating Mechanism
=> Speciation
=> Extinction of Animals
=> Evolution: Summary
=> Evolution: Evaluation

UNIT III

Chapter 7: Human Health and Diseases


=> Human Health and Diseases
=> Common diseases in human beings
=> Maintenance of personal and public hygiene
=> Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse
=> Mental health - Depression
=> Lifestyle disorders in human beings
=> Human Health and Diseases: Summary
=> Human Health and Diseases: Evaluation

Chapter 8: Immunology


=> Immunology
=> Basic concepts of immunology
=> Innate immunity
=> Acquired immunity
=> Immune responses
=> Lymphoid organs
=> Antigens and Types of antigens
=> Antibodies
=> Antigen and antibody interaction
=> Vaccines
=> Vaccination and immunization
=> Hypersentivity - Overactive Immune Response
=> Immunodeficiency disease -Ineffective immune response - AIDS
=> Autoimmune diseases
=> Tumour immunology
=> Immunology: Summary
=> Immunology: Evaluation

Chapter 9: Microbes in Human Welfare


=> Microbes in Human Welfare
=> Microbes in household products
=> Microbes in industrial products
=> Microbes in sewage treatment and energy generation
=> Microbes in the production of biogas (Gobar gas)
=> Microbes as bio control agents and biofertilisers
=> Bioremediation
=> Microbes in Human Welfare: Summary
=> Microbes in Human Welfare: Evaluation

UNIT IV

Chapter 10: Applications of biotechnology


=> Applications of biotechnology
=> Applications of biotechnology in Medicine
=> Gene Therapy
=> Stem Cell Therapy
=> Molecular Diagnostics
=> Transgenic Animals
=> Uses of Transgenesis
=> Biological products and their uses
=> Animal Cloning
=> Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloning Animals
=> Biotechnology Ethical Issues
=> Regulations in Biotechnology
=> Possible threats of Genetically Modified Organisms
=> Biosafety Guidelines
=> Applications of biotechnology: Summary
=> Applications of biotechnology: Evaluation

UNIT V

Chapter 11: Organisms Reproductive and Population


=> Organisms Reproductive and Population
=> Organism and its environment
=> Habitat
=> Major Abiotic Components or Factors
=> Concept of biome and their distribution
=> Responses to Abiotic Factors
=> Adaptations
=> Populations
=> Population Attributes
=> Population Age Distribution
=> Growth Models / Curves
=> Population Regulation
=> Population Interaction
=> Organisms Reproductive and Population: Summary
=> Organisms Reproductive and Population: Evaluation

Chapter 12: Biodiversity and its conservation


=> Biodiversity and its conservation
=> Biodiversity
=> Importance of biodiversity - Global and India
=> Biogeographical regions of India
=> Threats to biodiversity
=> Causes of biodiversity loss
=> IUCN
=> Biodiversity and its conservation
=> Restoration of Degraded Habitat
=> Biodiversity Act (BDA)
=> Biodiversity and its conservation: Summary
=> Biodiversity and its conservation: Evaluation

Chapter 13: Environmental Issues


=> Environmental Issues
=> Pollution and Classification of Pollutants
=> Air Pollution
=> Water Pollution
=> Noise Pollution
=> Agrochemicals
=> Biomagnification
=> Eutrophication
=> Organic Farming and Its Implementation
=> Solid Waste Management
=> Global Environment Change
=> Impact on Marine Ecosystems
=> Ozone Depletion
=> Deforestation
=> People’s Participation in Conservation of Forests
=> Ecosan Toilets
=> Environmental Issues: Summary
=> Environmental Issues: Evaluation

Glossary


=> Glossary and Definitions in Zoology



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