The term antigen (Ag) is used in two senses, the first to describe a molecule which generates an immune response and the second, a molecule which reacts with antibodies. In general antigens are large, complex molecular substances that can induce a detectable immune response. Thus an antigen is a substance that is specific to an antibody or a T-cell receptor and is often used as a synonym for immunogen.
An immunogen is a substance capable of initiating an immune response. Haptens are substance that are non-immunogenic but can react with the products of a specific immune response. Substances that can enhance the immune response to an antigen are called adjuvants. Epitope is an antigenic determinant and is the active part of an antigen. A paratope is the antigen binding site and is a part of an antibody which recognizes and binds to an antigen.
On the basis of origin, antigens are classified into exogenous antigens and endogenous antigens.
The antigens which enter the host from the outside in the form of microorganisms, pollens, drugs, or pollutants are called exogenous antigens. The antigens which are formed within the individual are endogenous antigens. The best examples are blood group antigens.
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