Inability to conceive or produce children even after unprotected sexual cohabitation is called infertility. That is, the inability of a man to produce sufficient numbers or quality of sperm to impregnate a woman or inability of a woman to become pregnant or maintain a pregnancy.
The causes for infertility are tumours formed in the pituitary or reproductive organs, inherited mutations of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of sex hormones, malformation of the cervix or fallopian tubes and inadequate nutrition before adulthood. Long-term stress damages many aspects of health especially the menstrual cycle. Ingestion of toxins (heavy metal cadmium), heavy use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana, injuries to the gonads and aging also cause infertility.
· Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), uterine fibroids and endometriosis are the most common causes of infertility in women.
· Low body fat or anorexia in women. i.e. a psychiatric eating disorder characterised by the fear of gaining weight.
· Undescended testes and swollen veins (varicocoele) in scrotum.
· Tight clothing in men may raise the temperature in the scrotum and affect sperm production.
· Under developed ovaries or testes.
· Female may develop antibodies against her partner's sperm.
· Males may develop an autoimmune response to their own sperm.
All women are born with ovaries, but some do not have functional uterus. This condition is called Mayer-Rokitansky syndrome.