Reproductive health refers to a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction. Providing medical facilities and care to the problems like menstrual irregularities, pregnancy related aspects, medical termination of pregnancy, STI, birth control, infertility, post natal child and maternal management are the important aspect of the Reproductive and Child Health Care programmes.
An overall improvement in reproductive health has taken place in our country as indicated by reduced maternal and infant mortality rates, assistance to infertile couples, etc. Improved health facilities and better living conditions promote an explosive growth of population. Such a growth necessitated intense propagation of contraceptive methods. Various contraceptive options are available now such as natural, traditional, barrier, IUDs, pills, injectables, implants and surgical methods. Though contraceptives are not regular requirements for reproductive health, one is adviced to use them to avoid pregnancy or to delay or space pregnancy.
Diseases or infections transmitted through coitus are called Sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Pelvic inflammatory diseases (PIDs), still birth, infertility are some of the complications of STDs. Early detection facilitates better cure of these diseases. Avoiding coitus with unknown/ multiple partners, use of condoms during coitus are some of the simple precautions to avoid contracting STIs.
Inability to conceive or produce children even after unprotected sexual cohabitation is called infertility. Various methods are now available to help such couples. In vitro fertilization followed by transfer of embryo into the female genital tract is one such method.