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Environmental Issues - Global Environment Change | 12th Zoology : Chapter 13 : Environmental Issues

Chapter: 12th Zoology : Chapter 13 : Environmental Issues

Global Environment Change

Natural environment and climate are dynamic and keep changing over course of time.

Global Environment Change


Green House Effect and Global warming

Natural environment and climate are dynamic and keep changing over course of time. But with human population growth, industrialization and associated anthropological activities the changes are more pronounced and impactful in a much shorter time span, thus resulting in drastic Global environmental change.

Large-scale changes of global environment can lead to hazards, which may include climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, changes in ecosystems due to loss of biodiversity, changes in hydrological systems and the supplies of freshwater, land degradation, urbanization, and stress on food-producing systems.

Greenhouse gases (GHG) water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and some artificial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) causes greenhouse effect. The absorbed energy warms the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth.


Major International Environmental Conventions

1972: UN conference on Human environment, Stockholm, Sweden

1972: UN environment programme (UNEP), Stockholm, Sweden 1987: Montreal Protocol, Vienna

1989: Intergovernmental panel on climate change, Geneva, Switzerland.

1992: Earth summit, Rio de Janeiro. Agenda 21, otherwise called Rio conference, Brazil

1997: Kyoto Protocol, Japan

2002: World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa

2003: World climate change conference, Moscow, Russia

2012: UN Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro

2015: UN Sustainable Development Summit, New York

2016: Montreal Protocol amendment at Kigali, Rwanda

2017: The COP23 climate change summit in Bonn, Germany

2018: UN climate change conference, Katowice, Poland


• The large-scale global warming will have significant impact on people and nature. As  global  average  temperatures  rise, precipitation patterns could be affected. Extreme wet and dry conditions can be expected (flooding and desertification). Coastal areas shall become more vulnerable to storm surges as sea level rises. Plant and animal species will migrate or disappear in response to climate change.

• Global warming can directly affect the flora and fauna. This could also result in shortage of food and even lead to food crisis; and affect the health of the people and organisms.

The UNO has several measures to control or reduce pollution. Through various conventions organized by UNO, the countries assured to take steps to control or reduce emissions by factories and automobiles.

Climate change threatens Nilgiri Tahr: The endangered wild goat could lose approximately 60 % of its habitat, starting from the 2030s. (The Hindu, 12.08.2018)

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