Degrading natural environments, depleting natural resources, pollution, vulnerability to large scale environmental changes and hazards are the core Environmental issues of today.
Air pollution by fossil fuel burning and other anthropological activities like industrialization is reaching alarming levels and affecting human health and testing the survival of sensitive species.
Domestic and industrial sewage, and agricultural run-off are the most common reasons for pollution of water bodies, resulting in reduced dissolved oxygen and increased Biochemical Oxygen demand of water bodies. Eutrophication and algal blooms are regular occurrences today. Industrial wastewaters are often rich in toxic chemicals, heavy metals and organic compounds which harm living organisms and may even result in death of aquatic life.
Noise pollution is a threat to human and other animals. It can affect health and disturb peaceful habitats. Agrochemicals and its usages cause many ill effects in human beings, other organisms and soil. Agrochemicals can also cause biomagnification. The solution is to revert to non-chemical farming (use of biofertilisers, biopesticides, protect pollinators) practices.
Generation of municipal wastes and their safe disposal are major issues faced by communities today. Solid wastes create environmental problems and must be disposed-off in safe ways. Disposal of solid wastes, radioactive wastes and e-wastes requires further efforts and research. Solid wastes like plastic can be combated by practicing the 4R - refuse, reduce, reuse and recycle. Ecosan toilets are some of the universally accepted eco-friendly practices.
Green house effect and depletion of ozone layer are aggravated by emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and CFCs and deforestation. Melting of ice caps, rising sea levels, change in rainfall patterns, increase in average global temperature, are deleterious to living organisms. Increased risks of skin cancer, mutations and other disorders are potential threats.
Earth summits, Conventions on climate change, developing of protocols and creation of emission standards and control are some of the steps taken by governments towards protecting our environment and conserve for today and the future generations.