Essential Microbiology

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Essential Microbiology

Microbiology


=> What is microbiology?
=> Why is microbiology important?
=> How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and beyond
=> Light microscopy
=> Electron microscopy

Biochemical Principles


=> Atomic structure
=> Isotopes
=> Chemical bonds
=> Acids, bases, and pH
=> Biomacromolecules
=> Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules
=> Proteins - Biomacromolecules
=> Higher levels of protein structure
=> Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA
=> Lipids - Biomacromolecules

Cell Structure and Organisation


=> Cell Structure and Organisation
=> The procaryotic cell and its structure
=> Eucaryotic cell Structure
=> Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes

Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation


=> Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation
=> Microbial Nutritional categories
=> How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell?
=> Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms

Microbial Growth


=> Estimation of microbial numbers
=> Factors affecting microbial growth
=> The kinetics of microbial growth
=> Growth in multicellular microorganisms

Microbial Metabolism


=> Why is energy needed?
=> Enzymes
=> Principles of energy generation
=> Oxidation - reduction reactions
=> Glycolysis
=> Aerobic respiration
=> Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain
=> Fermentation
=> Metabolism of lipids and proteins
=> Anaerobic respiration
=> Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules
=> Photosynthesis
=> Anoxygenic photosynthesis
=> Anabolic reactions
=> Regulation of metabolism

Microbial Diversity


=> A few words about Microbial Classification

Procaryote Diversity


=> Procaryote Diversity
=> Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features
=> Phylum: Proteobacteria
=> Photosynthetic Proteobacteria
=> Nitrifying Proteobacteria
=> Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria
=> Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria
=> Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria
=> Methanotrophic Proteobacteria
=> Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria
=> Enteric Proteobacteria
=> Vibrio and related genera
=> Pseudomonads
=> Acetic acid bacteria
=> Stalked and budding Proteobacteria
=> Sheathed Proteobacteria
=> Predatory Proteobacteria
=> Spirilla
=> Rickettsia
=> Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria
=> Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi (green non-sulphur bacteria)
=> Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching bacteria
=> Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’
=> Phylum Planctomycetes
=> Phylum Chlamydiae
=> Phylum Spirochaetes
=> Phylum Bacteroidetes
=> Phylum: Verrucomicrobia
=> The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum Actinobacteria
=> Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria
=> Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria
=> Bacteria and human disease

Fungi


=> General biology of the Fungi
=> Classification of the Fungi
=> Fungi and disease

Protista


=> The Algae
=> Structural characteristics of algal protists
=> Euglenophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists
=> Dinoflagellata - Structural characteristics of algal protists
=> Diatoms - Structural characteristics of algal protists
=> Chlorophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists
=> Phaeophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists
=> Rhodophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists
=> Protozoa
=> Zooflagellates (Mastigophora) - Protozoa
=> Ciliates (Ciliophora) - Protozoa
=> Amoebas (Sarcodina) - Protozoa
=> Sporozoans (Apicomplexa) - Protozoa
=> The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists)
=> Protistan taxonomy: a modern view

Viruses


=> What are viruses?
=> Viral structure
=> Classification of viruses
=> Viral replication cycles
=> Replication cycles in bacteriophages
=> Replication cycles in animal viruses
=> Replication of RNA viruses
=> Replication cycles in plant viruses
=> Viroids
=> Prions
=> Cultivating viruses
=> Viral diseases in humans

Microbial Genetics


=> How do we know genes are made of DNA?
=> DNA replication
=> DNA replication in procaryotes
=> What happens when replication goes wrong?
=> DNA replication in eucaryotes
=> What exactly do genes do?
=> Regulation of gene expression
=> Molecular basis of mutations
=> Genetic transfer in microorganisms

Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering


=> Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering
=> Plasmid cloning vectors
=> Bacteriophages as cloning vectors
=> Expression vectors - Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering
=> Eucaryotic cloning vectors
=> Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

The Control of Microorganisms


=> Sterilisation - Control of Microorganisms
=> Sterilisation by heat - Control of Microorganisms
=> Sterilisation by irradiation - Control of Microorganisms
=> Sterilisation using ethylene oxide - Control of Microorganisms
=> Disinfection - Control of Microorganisms
=> Kinetics of cell death

Antimicrobial Agents


=> Antimicrobial Agents
=> Antibiotics
=> What other properties should an antibiotic have?
=> How do antibiotics work?
=> Resistance to antibiotics
=> How does antibiotic resistance work?
=> How does antibiotic resistance arise?
=> Antibiotic susceptibility testing
=> Antifungal and antiviral agents

Microbial Associations


=> Microbial associations with animals
=> Microbial associations with plants
=> Microbial associations with other microorganisms

Microorganisms in the Environment


=> Microorganisms in the Environment
=> The carbon cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment
=> The nitrogen cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment
=> The sulphur cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment
=> Phosphorus - Microorganisms in the Environment
=> Microbiology of soil
=> Microbiology of freshwater
=> Microbiology of seawater
=> Beneficial effects of microorganisms in the environment
=> Harmful effects of microorganisms in the environment

Industrial and Food Microbiology


=> Microorganisms and food
=> Microorganisms as food
=> Microbial spoilage of food
=> Microorganisms in the production of biochemicals
=> Products derived from genetically engineered microorganisms
=> Microorganisms in the mining industry



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