Essential Microbiology

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Essential Microbiology

Essential Microbiology


What is microbiology?
Why is microbiology important?
How do we know? Microbiology in perspective: to the ‘golden age’ and beyond
Light microscopy
Electron microscopy

Biochemical Principles

Atomic structure
Chemical bonds
Acids, bases, and pH
Carbohydrates - Biomacromolecules
Proteins - Biomacromolecules
Higher levels of protein structure
Nucleic acids: Structure of DNA and RNA
Lipids - Biomacromolecules

Cell Structure and Organisation

Cell Structure and Organisation
The procaryotic cell and its structure
Eucaryotic cell Structure
Cell division in procaryotes and eucaryotes

Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation

Microbial Nutrition and Cultivation
Microbial Nutritional categories
How do Microbial nutrients get into the microbial cell?
Laboratory cultivation of microorganisms

Microbial Growth

Estimation of microbial numbers
Factors affecting microbial growth
The kinetics of microbial growth
Growth in multicellular microorganisms

Microbial Metabolism

Why is energy needed?
Principles of energy generation
Oxidation - reduction reactions
Aerobic respiration
Oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain
Metabolism of lipids and proteins
Anaerobic respiration
Energy may be generated by the oxidation of inorganic molecules
Anoxygenic photosynthesis
Anabolic reactions
Regulation of metabolism

Microbial Diversity

A few words about Microbial Classification

Procaryote Diversity

Procaryote Diversity
Domain: Archaea : Classification and General features
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Photosynthetic Proteobacteria
Nitrifying Proteobacteria
Iron- and sulphur-oxidising Proteobacteria
Hydrogen-oxidising Proteobacteria
Nitrogen-fixing Proteobacteria
Methanotrophic Proteobacteria
Sulphate- and sulphur-reducing Proteobacteria
Enteric Proteobacteria
Vibrio and related genera
Acetic acid bacteria
Stalked and budding Proteobacteria
Sheathed Proteobacteria
Predatory Proteobacteria
Phylum Cyanobacteria: the blue-green bacteria
Phylum Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria) and phylum Chloroflexi (green non-sulphur bacteria)
Phylum Aquificae and phylum Thermotogae: the deeply branching bacteria
Phylum ‘Deinococcus-Thermus’
Phylum Planctomycetes
Phylum Chlamydiae
Phylum Spirochaetes
Phylum Bacteroidetes
Phylum: Verrucomicrobia
The Gram-positive bacteria: phylum Firmicutes and phylum Actinobacteria
Phylum Firmicutes: The low GC Gram-positive bacteria
Phylum Actinobacteria: The high GC Gram-positive bacteria
Bacteria and human disease


General biology of the Fungi
Classification of the Fungi
Fungi and disease


The Algae
Structural characteristics of algal protists
Euglenophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists
Dinoflagellata - Structural characteristics of algal protists
Diatoms - Structural characteristics of algal protists
Chlorophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists
Phaeophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists
Rhodophyta - Structural characteristics of algal protists
Zooflagellates (Mastigophora) - Protozoa
Ciliates (Ciliophora) - Protozoa
Amoebas (Sarcodina) - Protozoa
Sporozoans (Apicomplexa) - Protozoa
The slime moulds and water moulds (the fungus-like protists)
Protistan taxonomy: a modern view


What are viruses?
Viral structure
Classification of viruses
Viral replication cycles
Replication cycles in bacteriophages
Replication cycles in animal viruses
Replication of RNA viruses
Replication cycles in plant viruses
Cultivating viruses
Viral diseases in humans

Microbial Genetics

How do we know genes are made of DNA?
DNA replication
DNA replication in procaryotes
What happens when replication goes wrong?
DNA replication in eucaryotes
What exactly do genes do?
Regulation of gene expression
Molecular basis of mutations
Genetic transfer in microorganisms

Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering

Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering
Plasmid cloning vectors
Bacteriophages as cloning vectors
Expression vectors - Microorganisms in Genetic Engineering
Eucaryotic cloning vectors
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

The Control of Microorganisms

Sterilisation - Control of Microorganisms
Sterilisation by heat - Control of Microorganisms
Sterilisation by irradiation - Control of Microorganisms
Sterilisation using ethylene oxide - Control of Microorganisms
Disinfection - Control of Microorganisms
Kinetics of cell death

Antimicrobial Agents

Antimicrobial Agents
What other properties should an antibiotic have?
How do antibiotics work?
Resistance to antibiotics
How does antibiotic resistance work?
How does antibiotic resistance arise?
Antibiotic susceptibility testing
Antifungal and antiviral agents

Microbial Associations

Microbial associations with animals
Microbial associations with plants
Microbial associations with other microorganisms

Microorganisms in the Environment

Microorganisms in the Environment
The carbon cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment
The nitrogen cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment
The sulphur cycle - Microorganisms in the Environment
Phosphorus - Microorganisms in the Environment
Microbiology of soil
Microbiology of freshwater
Microbiology of seawater
Beneficial effects of microorganisms in the environment
Harmful effects of microorganisms in the environment

Industrial and Food Microbiology

Microorganisms and food
Microorganisms as food
Microbial spoilage of food
Microorganisms in the production of biochemicals
Products derived from genetically engineered microorganisms
Microorganisms in the mining industry

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