# Physics - 1

## Nature of the Physical World and Measurement

Scope of Physics
Physics, Technology and Society
Forces of nature
Measurement
Derived quantities and their units
SI standards
Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols
Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities
Determination of distance, mass, time
Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments
Measurement: Significant figures
Measurement: Rounding off
Classification of Errors in Measurement
Dimensional Analysis
Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis

## Kinematics

Kinematics - Rest and Motion
Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion)
Equations of motion
Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time graph
Representation of a vector quantities
Different types of vectors
Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors
Subtraction of vectors
Resolution of vectors and rectangular components
Multiplication of two vectors
Projectile motion
Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally
Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique projection)
Newton's first law of motion
Three types of the inertia
Examples for Newton's first law of motion
Newton's second law of motion
Impulsive force and Impulse of a force
Newton's third Law of motion
Applications of Newton s third law of motion
Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum
Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces
Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces
Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's theorem
Uniform circular motion
Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity
Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction
Applications of centripetal forces
Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding
Motion in a vertical circle
Motion on a level circular road
Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force
Potential energy and Kinetic energy
Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement
Conservative forces and non-conservative forces
Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision

## Dynamics of Rotational Motion

Centre of mass
Centre of gravity
Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium
Rotational motion of rigid bodies
Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body
Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes theorem
Moment of a force
Couple and moment of the couple (Torque)
Angular momentum of a rigid body
Relation between torque and angular acceleration
Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration

## Gravitation and Space Science

Newton's law of gravitation
Acceleration due to gravity
Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth
Variation of acceleration due to gravity
Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy
Inertial mass and Gravitational mass
Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet
Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy
Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites
Uses of satellites
Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch Vehicles (Rockets)
Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels
The Solar system
Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods
Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets
Conditions for life on any planet
Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system
Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system
Milky Way galaxy
Origin of the Universe

## Mechanics of Solids and Fluids

Mechanics of Solids and Fluids
Intermolecular or interatomic forces
Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law
Experimental verification of Hooke's law
Study of stress - strain relationship
Three moduli of elasticity
Relation between the three moduli of elasticity
Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method
Applications of modulus of elasticity
Pressure due to a liquid column
Pascal's law and effect of gravity
Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake
Co-efficient of viscosity
Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow
Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids)
Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow method
Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force
Experiments to demonstrate surface tension
Molecular theory of surface tension
Fluid Surface energy and surface tension
Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble
Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity
Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise method
Factors affecting and Applications surface tension
Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy
Fluid Equation of continuity
Bernoulli's theorem
Application of Bernoulli's theorem

## Oscillations

The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM
Important terms in simple harmonic motion
Dynamics of harmonic oscillations
Angular harmonic oscillator
Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring
Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube
Oscillations of a simple pendulum
Laws of pendulum
Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion
Types of oscillations

## Wave Motion

Characteristics of wave motion
Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion
Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave
Velocity of wave in different media
Laplace?s correction
Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases
Equation of a plane progressive wave
Characteristics of progressive wave
Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level
Applications of reflection of sound waves
Applications of refraction of sound
Superposition principle of waves
Interference of waves
Experimental demonstration of interference of sound
Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats
Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves
Standing waves in strings - Sonometer
Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes
Resonance air column apparatus
Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications

## Heat and Thermodynamics

Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction
Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases
Pressure exerted by a gas
Degrees of freedom of molecule
Law of equipartition of energy
Thermal equilibrium
Molar specific heat capacity of a gas
First law of thermodynamics
Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation)
Indicator diagram (P-V diagram)
Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion
Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes
Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's statement
Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations
Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences
Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation
Perfect black body
Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling
Surface temperature of the Sun
Angstrom pyrheliometer

## Ray Optics

Reflection of light
Image in a plane mirror
Reflection at curved surfaces
Total internal reflection
Applications of Total internal reflection
Michelson's method
Importance of velocity of light
Refraction of light
Refraction at a spherical surface
Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification
Combination of thin lenses in contact
Refraction of light through a prism
Dispersion of light and Dispersive power
Spectrometer
Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer
Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism
Formation of rainbows

## Magnetism

Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements
Basic properties of magnets
Force between two magnetic poles
Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet)
Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet
Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet
Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field
Tangent law
End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer
Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer
Magnetic properties of materials
Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances
Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss
Uses of ferromagnetic materials